Fish is the main animal protein source for the people of Bangladesh. In spite of vast water resources, fish production is in decline, resulting in protein-energy malnutrition. Farmers participating in on-farm research developed low-input sustainable aquaculture practices that benefit the poor farmers, who constitute the bulk of the population. Farmer-oriented studies have confirmed the viability of culturing silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) and nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in seasonal ponds. Productions of 1,2052,156 kg of P. gonionotus per ha were obtained in 3-6 months using rice bran as supplementary feed. While a production of 2,138-3,554 kg/ha/6 months was obtained in on-station experiments with cultures of O. niloticus, using various supplementary feeds and fertilizers, studies rearing O. niloticus were undertaken in farmers' seasonal ponds, resulting in production of 1,441-2,343 kg/ha in 4-6 months, using rice bran as supplementary feed and fertilizers. Results of a survey conducted to study the socioeconomic impact and farmers' assessment of culturing nile tilapia in seasonal ponds revealed that 70 % of the fish produced were consumed on-farm, and only 23 % of the fish sold was enough to meet operational costs. The overall return on investment was 334%. Integration of poultry rearing (500 chicken/ha) with carp culture in perennial ponds proved to be economically feasible and resulted in the production of 5,044 kg of fish and 6,676 kg of chicken (live weight) per ha in one year.