Agricultural research programs try to measure their contribution to a range of desired development outcomes, such as poverty reduction, food security, environmental sustainability and gender equality. This paper argues that the substantive measures (usually ‘indicators’) typically used to monitor these programs’ outcomes and impacts on gender equality are limited; they are unable to capture the full range of programmatic contributions towards the larger processes of change involved in achieving gender equality. We aim to identify a range of indicators or progress markers that have been used to measure contributions to gender equality by programs outside of the agricultural sector. It will focus specifically on measures that have been used to monitor or evaluate ‘gender transformative’ programs and it will then consider what can be learned in order to more accurately measure advances toward gender equality. This includes rethinking not only what is measured (the substantive content), but also how we measure, when we measure and who measures.