Myanmar's fisheries are among the most important globally but remain some of the least documented. The fisheries sector occupies an important place in Myanmar's economy and culture, and is set to change rapidly as the country enters a period of unprecedented political and economic transition. Building on a unique set of information sources, this article presents a broad view of the current state of knowledge on governance, livelihoods, production and supply chains across Myanmar's three main fishery sub-sectors (marine capture, inland capture, and aquaculture). The analysis is contextualized with a review of major changes in the country's policy history affecting fisheries. It is argued that Myanmar's fisheries now sit at a potential cross-road in terms of their governance. Taking advantage of Myanmar's latecomer position in its current transition, this article draws parallels with regional experiences to outline sectoral recommendations for policy reform.