Optimum manure loading rates in tropical freshwater fish ponds receiving untreated piggery wastes

Manure from grower-finisher pigs (15-100 kg) was added to 0.1 hs ponds at six different rates: 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 pigs/ha of pond. Tilapia (Sarotherodon niloticus), Cyprinus carpio and Ophicephalus striatus were cultured in the ponds at total stocking rates of 10000 and 20000 fish/ha. There were two 90-day fish culture periods in each 180 day pig culture period. The highest net fish yield of 3549 kg/ha/180 days was obtained with 103 pig/ha and 20000 fish/ha treatment. Based on the estimated production functions relating fish yield to manure input (number of pigs), optimum manure loading rates were computed for Philippines pig-fish operations at prevailing market prices.


Hopkins, K.D., Cruz, E.M., Hopkins, M.L., Chong, K.C. (1981)
p. 15-29. In: The ICLARM-CLSU integrated animal fish farming project: poultry-fish and pig-fish trials. ICLARM technical reports 2, 29 p.