The state of Assam in northeastern India has an excellent sub-tropical climate for the development of fresh water fish culture in a variety of aquatic bodies. Aquaculture not only plays an important role in nutrition but also in the rural economy of the State. A pilot project conducted with a group of resource poor tribal farmers revealed that a production of about 1 800 kg/ha/yr could be achieved from small seasonal homestead ponds through integrated use of locally available biological resources. This implies an excellent opportunity for improving the rural economy through the development of small-scale fish culture enterprises. In this project, a greater emphasis was placed on improving the knowledge and skills of the farmers and their farming practices so that in the future they would be in a position to expand their activities with financial assistance made available locally. Aquaculture being a new activity in the area, this pilot project was only a start in acquainting the farmers with the practice and potential of aquaculture.