In Bangladesh, tilapia growout in different types of culture systems has shown value to both current and future fish producers. Both rural and urban consumers are likely to benefit from more widespread stocking of tilapia within conventional polyculture and intensive monoculture systems. Ensuring the availability of improved strains at the farm gate is critical to this development, as well as consistent seedstock quality. Production of monosex Nile tilapia is likely to become established in the private sector, but its high investment requirement and need for critical resources mean its impacts will be localized and mainly accessed by moreintensive producers. On a pilot scale, decentralized production of high-quality strains in seasonal rice fields was found technically appropriate while delivering benefits to many people.