For millions of people living along the coastal fringe, sea level rise is perhaps the greatest threat to livelihoods over the coming century. With the refinement and downscaling of global climate models and increasing availability of airborne-lidar-based inundation models, it is possible to predict and quantify these threats with reasonable accuracy where such information is available. For less developed countries, especially small island states, access to high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from lidar is limited.
Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper the authors demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands.
Today, fish is recognized as a global superfood, providing nutrients and micronutrients that are essential to cognitive and physical development, especially in children, and is an important part of a healthy diet. Globally, 3 billion people rely on fish for almost 20% of their animal protein. And demand for fish is increasing. Projections suggest that we will have a 68–78 million metric ton shortfall of fish by 2030. This will be especially acute in sub-Saharan Africa, where aquaculture has yet to fully develop and where fish consumption is projected to decline.
A discussion is presented on the role played by customary marine tenure (CMT) institutions in the regulation of fisheries in the Pacific Ocean Islands. Particular reference is made to the system in operation in Marovo Lagoon, in the Solomon Islands, whereby a number of defined clans control resource use within defined areas of land and sea. It is believed that such systems have considerable capacity for handling and adapting to new circumstances, thereby becoming potentially important tools in the contemporary management of fisheries and of the coastal zone in general.
Solomon Islands has recently developed substantial policy aiming to support inshore fisheries management, conservation, climate change adaptation and ecosystem approaches to resource management. A large body of experience in community based approaches to management has developed but “upscaling” and particularly the implementation of nation-wide approaches has received little attention so far.
Interest in alternative ways to catch fish (particularly very young fish) for the marine aquarium trade is growing steadily. The WorldFish Center (formerly ICLARM) in Solomon Islands has been investigating the feasibility of a new artisanal fishery based on the capture and culture of presettlement coral reef fishes3 targeted by the live fish trades. Our major motivation has been to find alternative sustainable livelihoods for impoverished coastal communities in the Pacific and Asian regions (Bell et al. 1999).
Research into developing farming methods for giant clams at the ICLARM Coastal Aquaculture Centre in the Solomon Islands has proceeded in parallel with a program of village-based trials. This program is an attempt to involve the envisaged recipients of technology at a very early stage. The considerations, design and initial implementation of this program from 1988 to 1990 are described in this article. The expansion, impact and results of the program will be the subject of future publications by the scientists involved.
Funded by the Australian Government, The project "Poverty alleviation, mangrove conservation and climate change: Carbon offsets as payments for mangrove ecosystem services in Solomon Islands" explores whether or not mangroves can be included in offset projects. This brief outlines the key elements of the projects, its key deliverables. The project offers the Government of Solomon Islands timely advice and enhanced technical expertise to cope with the costs and challenges arising from climate change.
Mangroves are an imperilled biome whose protection and restoration through payments for ecosystem services (PES) can contribute to improved livelihoods, climate mitigation and adaptation. Interviews with resource users in three Solomon Islands villages suggest a strong reliance upon mangrove goods for subsistence and cash, particularly for firewood, food and building materials. Village-derived economic data indicates a minimum annual subsistence value from mangroves of US$ 345–1501 per household.
The marine ornamental trade became active in Solomon Islands in the mid-1980s, primarily through the wild harvest of corals and fish. The initiation of more sustainable techniques (cultured giant clams and farmed corals) did not occur until the late-1990’s through projects initiated under the auspices of ICLARM (former WorldFish.