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There has been a gradual evolution in fisheries management over the past decades from a focus on sustainability of a single species or stock and resources to a focus on marine ecosystems. Among the issues to be addressed for effective implementation of ecosystem based fisheries management(EBFM) are the appropriate governance arrangements and scale for management.

Increasing population, ineffective management, competition among fishing gears over access to resources and proliferation of destructive practices are imposing severe stress on the inland water bodies of Bangladesh. These factors also contribute to the increasing incidence of conflicts among fishery stakeholders. When unabated, these conflicts are potential threats to the livelihoods of millions of the poorest fishing communities that depend on these resources.

Vietnam’s marine fisheries are considered to be small scale and are concentrated in coastal near-shore waters. This has resulted in heavy pressure on near-shore fisheries resources. Near-shore fisheries are considered by fishers and the government to be over-exploited, causing hardship for many coastal communities. This paper reviews and analyzes changes in policy towards small-scale fisheries in Vietnam over the last two decades.