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This paper examines the challenges of managing the upper watersheds of mainland Southeast Asia, taking local livelihoods and resource competition as its point of departure. The analysis presents the factors of change that drive economic, environmental, and social transfromations of the area. These dynamics highlight the need for greater attention to the governance and challenges of the uplands- how are decisions over resource use made, who makes them, and to whose benefit?
Although women have proved to be competent in adopting new aquaculture technologies, their role is very much restricted and often ignored. One of the major reasons is the location of aquaculture sites and several sociocultural taboos against women who strive to earn for their family’s subsistence in rural areas. There is a gender bias in many aquaculture activities.
The majority of the population of north west Cambodia is dependent on subsistence farming foraging systems. Forests, fishery and farming are the main resource bases. The self-sustaining peasant type households draw their food and livelihood from a combination of activities such as farming and hunting-gathering of fish, wildlife and wood materials. This system of utilisation of common and private property has evolved over centuries and has ensured two things.