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The main objective of the document is to make a modest attempt to highlight the challenges which are emerging with the current phase of Cambodia's aquarian reforms -- the most important component of which is the current transition from fishing lots to community fisheries. The challenges include the realms of institutional and policy reform, local action, innovation and research.

The Cambodian government introduced a dramatic reform in 2001 that reduced the allocation of commercial fishing lots in favor of local community access. Hailed by community activists, the policy shift nevertheless accelerated a crisis in the sector, with effectively open access and very poor law enforcement leading to intense exploitation and a surge in illegal fishing.

This article assesses recent efforts in a multiethnic town in the Guatemalan highlands to address wastewater pollution, which threatens public health and tourism, the basis of the town's economy. Reporting on an ongoing program of action research, the authors trace the erosion of traditional, Mayan civic and religious institutions that were previously responsible for maintenance of a collective waterworks infrastructure, which in recent years has become the conduit for untreated sewage.