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Resource managers in many countries have not yet fully grasped the consequences of the fisheries dilemma now emerging in Southeast Asia. Official views often hold that abundant underutilized stocks still exist while in fact few do and many are already overexploited. Official views commonly state that there are opportunities for increased employment in fishing while in fact the catches are already divided among too many fishermen resulting in very low individual incomes.

The authors have assembled a unified body of information on milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture in the Philippines to pin-point where further efficiencies of resource use in the milkfish system can be obtained. Each of the subsystems-procurement, transformation, and delivery-is examined in turn. The major inefficiencies in the Philippine milkfish resource system occur in the transformation sub-system rather than in the fry procurement or delivery sub-systems.


Mexico, like many other Latin Amer-ican countries, is beginning to recognize the potential of integrated agriculture aquaculture systems in food production. However, Latin American experience in fish husbandry is limited compared to that of Southeast Asian culturists. In September 1981, Dr. K. Hopkins of ICLARM and the author visited projects of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bioticos (INIREB) to advise on research planning and technology development.