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Small-scale fisheries play a critical role in both poverty alleviation and food security. A large proportion of the world fish stocks are, however, getting fully or over-exploited. In this article we address these issues in the context of the small-scale fisheries of the Solomon Islands.

Reconciling food security, economic development and biodiversity conservation is a key challenge, especially in the face of the demographic transition characterizing many countries in the world. Fisheries and marine ecosystems constitute a difficult application of this bio-economic challenge. Many experts and scientists advocate an ecosystem approach to manage marine socio-ecosystems for their sustainability and resilience.

In this chapter, the authors use the case of community-based resource management in the Solomon Islands to contribute a critical social science perspective on navigating social transformations towards sustainability.

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