This report summarizes existing gender equality/equity scales or indices found in a review of the literature, conducted to inform the design and evaluation of a communication intervention to generate community-based, gender-transformative action in agricultural or aquatic agricultural systems (AAS). It is anticipated that findings from this report will contribute to a comprehensive research design to test the effects of gender transformative interventions beyond this single intervention.
During the rollout of CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) in Tonle Sap in 2013, water management was highlighted as one of the key development challenges. With limited capacity to regulate water, the situation oscillates between too much water in the wet season and too little water in the dry season.
There is compelling evidence that increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security. But past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice. A Gender Transformative Approach (GTA) goes beyond just considering the symptoms of gender inequality, and addresses the social norms, attitudes, behaviors and social systems that underlie them.
Key Outcomes by 2024: 1) 40% of income earned by women in 2M poor households 2) 50% increase in consumption of nutrient rich small fish and vegetables by women and children in 1M poor rural households 3) 50% increase in women taking up leadership roles in 120 focal communities 4) 75% of partners embedding GTA in their programs and allocating adequate resources.
Gender equity refers to the process of being fair to women and men, in order that women and men can equally access opportunities and life choices regardless of their sex. It has been proposed that local and national management policies and practices can be more effective if they are more gender equitable and better consider the differences in how men and women participate in natural resource use and in the community, taking into account their potentially different goals.
Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women’s work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid.
The purpose of the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) focal community profiles is to provide basic descriptions of initial conditions in each community where AAS works in the Barotse Floodplain (the Barotse Hub) in Zambia’s Western Province. This information will contribute to, among other things, (i) evaluating change through future benchmarking activities; (ii) developing hub-specific panel research designs to answer program and initiative research questions; and (iii) strengthening current community engagement processes.
Zambia’s rivers, lakes and wetlands support extensive agriculture, fisheries and livestock production and contribute to the livelihoods of about 3 million people or 25% of the country’s population. These aquatic agricultural systems are particularly important to poor people and provide significant opportunities for agriculture-based economic growth. The majority (72%) of the Zambian population is engaged in agricultural activities, of which almost 65% are women. There is now widespread recognition of the importance of gender and development.
Agricultural research programs try to measure their contribution to a range of desired development outcomes, such as poverty reduction, food security, environmental sustainability and gender equality. This paper argues that the substantive measures (usually ‘indicators’) typically used to monitor these programs’ outcomes and impacts on gender equality are limited; they are unable to capture the full range of programmatic contributions towards the larger processes of change involved in achieving gender equality.
A review of case law and other documentation of human rights issues in fishing communities highlights forced evictions, detention without trial, child labour, forced labour and unsafe working conditions, and violence and personal security, including gender-based violence, as key areas of concern. We argue that human rights violations undermine current attempts to reform the fisheries sector in developing countries by increasing the vulnerability and marginalization of certain groups.