Bangladesh has an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 164 000 km2 and a continental shelf area of 66 440 km2. Artisanal (small scale) fisheries extend from the coast to 40 m while industrial (commercial scale) fisheries operate beyond 40 m depth. The coastal fisheries of Bangladesh exploit a complex multi-species resource. There are 18 demersal and pelagic species, seven species of larger pelagic and 10 shrimp species that are commercially important among the fishes exploited.
Sri Lanka is an island country with a land area of 65 610 km2. With the declaration of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in 1976, the country gained sovereign rights over an ocean area of 536 000 km2 and EEZ extending from 24 to 200 nm. The continental shelf is about 26 000 km2 with an average width of around 22 km, and the coastline is 1 100 km long. The total annual fish production of Sri Lanka was 25 000 t in 1952 and 269 850 t in 1998. Major fish species caught in Sri Lankan waters are skipjack, blood fish, yellow fin tuna, mullet, shark, trevally, Spanish mackerel, prawns, lobsters.
Fisheries are an important source of protein and employment for Sri Lanka’s population. The declaration of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1976 gave the country a water area larger than its land area. The coastal fisheries resources consist of small and large pelagic fish, demersal and coral reef fish, invertebrates, shrimps and crabs. The small pelagic fish contribute 70% of the catch from coastal waters with an estimated annual production of 152 752 t in 1997.
India is endowed with a continental shelf of 0.5 million km2 and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of about 2 million km2. Almost half (39%) of the Indian population utilizes the marine fisheries resources. India ranked sixth worldwide in total fish production (4.95 million t) and second in inland fish production (2.24 million t) during 1995 - 96. Fish production expanded from 0.75 million t in 1950 - 51 to 4.95 million t in 1995 - 96, giving a significant increase at a cumulative growth rate of 4.2% per annum.
Fish production in Vietnam increased rapidly from 420 000 t in 1981 to 1 130 680 t in 1998. Likewise, there was an expansion in the number of motorized fishing boats from 29 584 units with an average horsepower (HP) of 19.8 boat-1 in 1981 to 71 800 units with an average HP of 26.2 in 1998. In 1995, fish production was valued at VN$2 475 billion (US$0.02 billion at 1 US$ = 11 041 VN$; source: oanda. com).
This paper presents the results of analyses of the demersal fish assemblages in Bangladesh waters of the Bay of Bengal. Catch data from three trawl survey cruises from January to February 1985 covering 135 stations were utilized for community structure analysis using TWINSPAN and DCA techniques. Both techniques separated the deepwater stations (> 90 m) from the shallow areas (< 90 m).
Spatial and temporal variations of the demersal fisheries resources of Malaysia were studied using multivariate analysis of their abundance (biomass) from research trawl surveys in relation to geographical and environmental parameters. TWINSPAN results indicate that the demersal resources of Malaysia can be geographically divided into five major species assemblages. Two assemblages are in Peninsular Malaysia and three assemblages are in Sabah and Sarawak waters.
The 1995 trawl data of the research vessels Pramong 2 and 9 in the Gulf of Thailand were analyzed using TWINSPAN and DCA. Four main station clusters were identified related to geographic location and depth. Two clusters are associated with shallow water areas and the other two clusters are found in deeper areas with water depths > 30 m. Temporal analysis indicates clustering of monthly data into wet and dry seasons. Examination of species abundance data indicates that the seasonality may not be very pronounced.
The depletion and degradation of the State marine and aquatic resources due to uncontrolled exploitation are the primary reasons for the enactment of fisheries laws. There are two approaches to the enforcement of these laws. Traditional law enforcement involves the intervention or actual performance by government through its designated and deputized agents. However, government activities are directed mainly at preventing further resource depletion. This is a shortcoming that prompted the conduct of alternative law enforcement strategies aimed at resource development.
Fish production in Malaysia increased steadily at 4.5% per annum from 801 000 t in 1985 to 1 280 906 t in 1997. Most of the production was contributed by marine capture fisheries, amounting to 1 168 973 t (91% of total production) in 1997, while the rest (132 700 t or 8%) came from inland fisheries and aquaculture. About 72% of the marine landings, or 837 574 t, were from Peninsular Malaysia while the rest were from the states of Sabah, Sarawak, and the Federal Territory Labuan.