Two opposing views exist in the literature on the potential role that international fish trade plays in economic development. While some claim that fish trade has a pro-poor effect, others denounce the negative effect of fish export on local populations’ food security and doubt its contributions to the macro-economy. In this paper, we explore this debate in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis did not find any evidence of direct negative impact of fish trade on food security; neither did it find evidence that international fish trade generates positive, pro-poor outcomes.
These “Technical Guidelines for Economic Valuation of Inland Small-scale Fisheries in Developing Countries” are one of the outputs of the project on “Food security and poverty alleviation through improved valuation and governance of river fisheries in Africa”. The guidelines draw upon research results and experience gained during the course of the project.
In both developed and developing countries, there is increased competition for water resources, resulting in deficiencies in supply and in various forms of pollution. In developing countries, the nutritional potential of aquatic resources is very important. To realize this potential, integrated research and management for sustainable water resource use are needed. This requires a sound understanding of the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems.
A brief account is given of a study of the species assemblages of the Western Indian Ocean, based on the trawl data collected during surveys conducted on the continental shelves in the region. The major objective is to describe thepatterns of species associations and relate them to environmental conditions. Details are given of the various computer programmes used in the study.
S.M. Garcia and C. Newton of the FAO Fisheries Department have produced a critical review of the situation and its causes and effects, which was presented to the Conference on Fish-eries Management: Global Aspects, in Seattle in June 1994. Some of the highlights, quoted from their paper are outlined in this paper.
In the last twenty years, policy prescriptions for addressing the global crisis in fisheries have centred on strengthening fisheries governance through clarifying exclusive individual or community rights of access to fishery resources. With a focus on small-scale developing country fisheries in particular, we argue that basing the case for fishery governance reform on assumed economic incentives for resource stewardship is insufficient when there are other sources of insecurity in people's lives that are unrelated to the state of fishery resources.
Bush park fishing / padal fishing is an indigenous fishing method widely employed in the Ashtamudi estuary of Kerala (south India). An artificial reef made from twigs and leaves of trees is planted in the shallow areas of the estuary. The aim is to harvest fish that find shelter in these structures for the purpose of feeding and breeding. Though the State Department of Fisheries has banned this method of fishing in the inland waters of Kerala, 400 padals are operating in this estuary. About 300 of them are anchored in the western parts of the estuary (west Kayal).
The dominant view in academic and policy arenas is increasingly one in which the major contribution of capture fisheries to development should be derived from the capacity of society to maximise the economic rent of fishery resources. Drawing upon empirical experience from the South, this article highlights the potentially disastrous consequences that a universal implementation of the rent-maximisation model would have in developing countries, and argues that a more gradual approach would be preferable.
The fish habitats along an inshore water stretch along the eastern/central coast of Lake Tanganyika are discussed and a quantitative analysis of the species composition, distribution and abundance of the littoral fishes within the area of study is presented. Seventy-one species of fish belonging to 48 genera and to 15 fish families were collected and identified during the study. The majority of species belonged to the Cichlidae family. Intensive beach seining for clupeids is suggested as one of the causes of low fish biomass in the area surveyed.
Blessed with beautiful beaches, mangroves and coral reefs, fisheries in Costa Rica developed without a hasie resources management plan until the mid 1980s when protected areas were developed and integrated into the National System of Conservation Areas. With the boom in tourism as well as a decrease in fish landings due to overfishing, and an increase in pollution threatening the coastal areas, there is now a need for integrated management of marine resources. Costa Rica has made a deliberate choice for sustainable development.