Human and institutional capacities for developing and managing genetically improved tilapia in Africa are discussed. Discussions are related particularly to the status of hatcheries, rearing facilities, research and extension services, training in genetic enhancement, and fish transfer in major aquaculture countries in Africa. The leading aquaculture producing countries are Egypt and Nigeria along with nine other countries with some intermediate levels of fi sh production. The availability of quality fry and fingerlings constitutes a major constraint.
China has a very rich genetic diversity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the red common carp plays an important role in Chinese aquaculture and genetic studies. Selective breeding, particularly crossbreeding has been applied successfully to red common carps in China, and the products of these efforts have been in commercial use since the 1970s. However, knowledge of the quantitative and molecular genetics of these carps is limited.
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the single most important species for aquaculture in the state of Karnataka, India, where it is generally grown in polyculture with Indian major carps. Precocious maturation and unwanted reproduction in the species have been identified as constraints to increase production in aquaculture and culture-based fisheries in Karnataka state. Stocks of C.
Total aquaculture production in Indonesia in 1994 was 493 000 tons of finfish, 169 000 tons of shellfish, mainly shrimp and 115 000 tons of seaweed with an estimated value of US$ 2 075 million. In 1994, the production of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was 135 200 tons, from ponds (52 600 tons), cages (28 600 tons) and ricefields (54 000 tons). The potential for aquaculture in Indonesia is large. The mangrove forest area is estimated to be around 4.29 million ha. It is recommended to use only 20 % of the total mangrove area for aquaculture production (830 900 ha).
In this paper we present livestock breeding developments that could be taken into consideration in the genetic improvement of farmed aquaculture species, especially in freshwater fish. Firstly, the current breeding objective in aquatic species has focused almost exclusively on the improvement of body weight at harvest or on growth related traits. This is unlikely to be sufficient to meet the future needs of the aquaculture industry.
Aquaculture is predicted to play a major and ever increasing role in meeting human needs for protein. In terrestrial animal and plant species genetic improvement programs have made a substantial contribution to productivity and viability. By contrast, most aquaculture stocks in current use in developing countries are genetically similar or inferior to wild, undomesticated stocks. Hence, there is ample justification for the planning, design and implementation of genetic improvement programs for aquatic animal species.
The GIFT project is a major strategic research initiative in applied genetics and breeding in tropical aquaculture. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was selected as a pilot species for the GIFT project because of its worldwide importance in aquaculture importance and short generation time, which make it attractive for breeding work. The project was initiated in 1988 with financial support from the ADB and UNDP/DGIP. The Phase I of the GIFT project (1988 to 1992) was successfully completed in July 1992.
A brochure on the GIFT technology research at WorldFish.
This study presents results of two generations of selection (G1 and G2) for growth of Nile tilapia. The selection environment consisted of earthen ponds which were fertilized daily with 50 kg dry matter (dm)/ha chicken manure. No supplementary feeds were provided. In total, 6429 fully pedigreed experimental fish were included in the analysis. Survival till harvest was highly variable ranging from 35% to 77% and was affected by initial weight, pond, and age effects.
An agreement on the need for concerted international efforts for advancing the science of fish breeding and genetics through networking.