Flesh quality has gained importance among consumers and in the aquaculture industry because it is directly related to human health and nutrition. Flesh quality comprises several different (freshness, appearance, smell, flavor, texture, taste, firmness, juiciness, and processing and hygienic) characteristics. Due to the large number of traits involved and the ensuing complexity, genetic improvement for flesh quality has been almost neglected in breeding programs for aquaculture species.
The development of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) breeding programs in Nigeria is discussed.
Common carp is one of the most important cultured freshwater fish species in the world. Its production in freshwater areas is the second largest in Europe after rainbow trout. Common carp production in Europe was 146,845 t in 2004 (FAO Fishstat Plus 2006). Common carp production is concentrated mainly in Central and Eastern Europe. In Hungary, common carp has been traditionally cultured in earthen ponds since the late 19th century, following the sharp drop in catches from natural waters, due to the regulation of main river systems.
Rajiv Gandhi Center for Aquaculture (RGCA), India was interested in obtaining the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT strain) for aquaculture in the country. Discussions were made and joint proposal was developed with the WorldFish Center to establish a satellite nucleus for the GIFT strain in India. The proposal also involves the design and conduct of the genetic improvement program for GIFT fish, the development of dissemination strategies, and the enhancement of local capacity in the areas of selective breeding and genetics.
The objective of this study was to investigate ways of improving the selective breeding program for growth related traits in common carp in Vietnam. A base population was established from six carp stocks following a single pair mating scheme. In the current study, we practiced two rearing schemes: i) separate families until the fish were large enough to be physically tagged, and ii) early communal rearing from very soon after hatching.
The quantitative genetic basis of fatty acid composition was examined in the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia selected for high breeding value for body weight and in the contemporaneous control selected for average breeding value. Gas chromatography analysis of 514 frozen fillet samples, obtained from the offspring of 104 sires and 154 dams from two generations in 2006 and 2007, showed that the fish possess all important fatty acids (FA), with the amount of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids being 3.6%.
The freshwater river systems and floodplains of Bangladesh are the breeding grounds for 13 endemic species of carps and barbs and a large number of other fish species, including a number of exotic carps and other species that have been introduced for aquaculture. Since 1967, breeding of endemic and exotic aquaculture species for seed producton through hypophysation techniques has become a common practice.
We mainly (but not exclusively) draw on research and development work carried out by The WorldFish Center (WorldFish). We review in detail the current state of development of a selection program that has had a main focus on growth rate and body traits. We also present some new, unpublished, information. There is evidence of sustained gains of 10–15% per generation over more than six generations. To date, these gains have not been accompanied by any undesirable correlated response. However, the prospects of altering sexual dimorphism and the shape of the fish appear to be very limited.
Over the last four decades, the aquaculture sector especially in developing countries has experienced dramatic growth. The increase in aquaculture production is a combination of area expansion and technological change (enhanced strains, input of feed and fertilizer, and improved management). One example of such technological change is the selective breeding efforts on tilapia that were initiated in 1988 by the WorldFish Center (then ICLARM) together with (inter-)national partners.
This paper reviews the management challenges facing Malawi lakes and analyzes the management responses that have been developed to deal with these challenges. Malawi lakes are under considerable stress due to high population growth and increasing levels of poverty which have led to overexploitation of fishery resources. High rates of soil erosion in the lake catchments are increasing siltation of shallow lakes, deltas and embayments, affecting water quality and fish breeding habitats, thereby degrading fish production potential.