"Aquaculture and Food Security in the Solomon Islands" (ACIAR Project FIS/2009/061) was formulated to assist the Government of Solomon Islands in better understanding the future demand for aquaculture and particularly to develop a strategy to guide future development of sustainable inland aquaculture to support food security and secure livelihoods for the Solomon Islands in response to rising populations and climate change.
The river floodplain ecosystems of the Sahelian region have recently undergone two major hydrological changes: (i) increased interannual variation in rainfall and (ii) a steep reduction of flood peaks and floodplain inundation following the construction of a number of dams and increased water abstraction. Fishers have little freedom of movement within the delta to help them cope with environmental changes. The only new opportunities are those offered by new reservoirs.
Anthropogenic global warming has significantly influenced physical and biological processes at global and regional scales. The observed and anticipated changes in global climate present significant opportunities and challenges for societies and economies. We compare the vulnerability of 132 national economies to potential climate change impacts on their capture fisheries using an indicator-based approach. Countries in Central and Western Africa (e.g.
Fish is a mainstay of food security for Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs). Diversifying the supply of fish will make rural households in the Pacific more resilient to natural disasters, social and political instability, and the uncertainty of climate change.
A brief description of the NMFS/ORSTOM/ILCARM climate and Eastern Ocean systems (CEOS) project is given. CEOS will study the four major eastern boundary current regions (Peru/Chile, California, Northwest and Southwest Africa) and attempt to separate local short term changes of their resources and/or dynamics from long-term, climatic global changes.
Fish provide essential nutrition and income to an ever-growing number of people around the world, especially where other food and employment resources are limited. Many fishers and aquaculturists are poor and ill-prepared to adapt to change, making them vulnerable to impacts on fish resources. Fisheries and aquaculture are threatened by changes in temperature and, in freshwater ecosystems, precipitation. Storms may become more frequent and extreme, imperilling habitats, stocks, infrastructure and livelihoods.
Lake Chilwa produces between zero and 24,000 metric tons of fish per year, making it one of the most productive but variable lakes in Africa. The size of the lake varies seasonally and among years, sometimes drying completely. Its surrounding wetland and floodplain provide habitat for a diversity of birds and economically valuable grasses and reeds. When the lake has water, there is considerable activity on its shores and temporary fishing villages spring up. People move in and out of the lake basin in concert with these seasonal and longer term changes.
Nations of the Greater Mekong Subregion need to ‘rethink’ their agricultural industries to meet future food needs, given the social shifts and climate changes that are forecast for the coming decades. With better farming practices, and by managing agriculture within the wider context of natural ecosystems, nations could boost production and increase the wealth and resilience of poor people in rural communities. Demand for food is forecast to double by 2050, as populations swell and people’s dietary choices change.
The Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, shared by India and Bangladesh, is recognized as a global priority for biodiversity conservation. Sea level rise, due to climate change, threatens the long term persistence of the Sundarbans forests and its biodiversity. Among the forests’ biota is the only tiger (Panthera tigris) population in the world adapted for life in mangrove forests. Prior predictions on the impacts of sea level rise on the Sundarbans have been hampered by coarse elevation data in this low-lying region, where every centimeter counts.
There is an increasing ‘fish gap’ in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where fish supplies have failed to keep pace with the region’s growing demand. Despite the high dependence on fish for nutrition in much of the region, consumption is currently half the global average and declining. In SSA, as in many other regions globally, marine and inland capture fisheries resources are stagnating or decreasing, largely due to environmental or ecosystem changes and over-exploitation. Climate change is already altering the distribution of fish stocks and rainfall patterns upon which these fisheries depend.