The Cogtong Bay experience represents a bold attempt to pursue a shared responsibility between the government and local residents for rehabilitating coastal resources. Some of the factors that provided the impetus to co-management arrangements were the recognition of resource management problems, dependence on coastal resources for livelihood and the desire for more sustainable resource use.
In the aftermath of the tsunami in 2007, in an effort to assist communities in Western Province in Solomon Islands, the World Wide Fund for Nature, Solomon Islands (WWFSI) received funding from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation for a project on “Post-disaster fisheries and marine conservation recovery activities in the Western Province, Solomon Islands”.
Blessed with beautiful beaches, mangroves and coral reefs, fisheries in Costa Rica developed without a hasie resources management plan until the mid 1980s when protected areas were developed and integrated into the National System of Conservation Areas. With the boom in tourism as well as a decrease in fish landings due to overfishing, and an increase in pollution threatening the coastal areas, there is now a need for integrated management of marine resources. Costa Rica has made a deliberate choice for sustainable development.
This paper outlines the opportunities and constraints in the use of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems (GIS) for coastal zone management (CZM). Extensive applications of remote sensing under ASEAN/US CRMP were hindered by cost, lack of familiarity with the methodologies, lack of technical expertise and inaccessibility of remotely sensed data. The use of GIS in CRMP was limited to the Malaysian project. Although many of the real-world complexities of the coastal zone cannot be adequately represented in current GIS, it still serves as a useful tool for CZM.
A discussion is presented on the topic of statistical data analysis in the field of ecology, emphasizing the importance of computer programmes being user friendly for the ecologist. Particular reference is given to TWINSPAN, CANOCO and PATN and the applications of these programmes to tropical fisheries and coastal zone management.
The Lingayen Gulf coastal area, located in the northwestern part of Luzon island, illustrates in microcosm the depletion and degradation problems resulting from unplanned and competing resources utilization in the country. The mix of water-based (e.g., capture fisheries, aquaculture, sea tansport, tourism) and landbased (e.g., urban development, farming, logging, mining) economic activities in the area has put considerable stress on the resource systems which are the very basis of the viability of these activities.
Indonesia has the second longest coastline (81,000 km) of all countries in the world. Tremendous benefits could be derived from the coastal resources. But, as in many developing countries, these resources are being quickly depleted and degraded. The Segara (lagoon) Anakan-Cilacap area, on the south coast of Central Java, is rich in resources but is rapidly being altered by human activities. The Segara Anakan-Cilacap coastal region is the only major estuarine-mangrove zone in Java which supports intensive use by local people.
Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Boli-nao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance-sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the hermatypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0.4%/yr to cyanide, and 0.03%/yr to coral-grabbing anchors, the potential coral recovery rate reduced by about one third from 3.8%/yr in the absence of disturbances to 2.4%/yr.
A major regional undertaking, the ASEAN/US Coastal Resources Management Project (CRMP) generated substantial information and experience in integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) in its six-year duration. This paper outlines the process and approach in project design and implementation. The project's main component was thedevelopment of site-specific ICZM plans in the respective participating countries. The achievements and lessons learned from CRMP shaped an ICZM typological framework applicable to other developing nations.
Better knowledge about the relationships among population, coastal environments, and consumption is absolutely essential if we are to arrive at adequate policies and management systems. Vibrant economic activity in the coastal zones of the world, and the effects of accompanying human population growth, have led to much research, many environmental assessments, and much management and policy action over the years.