Successes and failures of crocodile conservation strategies in the Asia Pacific

In this chapter, the authors examine whether the leather trade or other economic uses of crocodiles really are key to conserving the threatened crocodilians in the Asia Pacific region. They review six species of crocodile and the role of hunting, farming and other forms of exploitation in their management. Drawing on these and other cases from around the world, the author then consider some of the conditions that ensure such uses are sustainable and benefit, rather than endanger, wild populations.

Reconciling multiple societal objectives in cross-scale marine governance: Solomon Islands’ engagement in the Coral Triangle Initiative

Environmental governance aims to reconcile an expanding set of societal objectives at ever-larger scales despite the challenges that remain in integrating conservation and development at smaller scales. The authors examine Solomon Islands’ engagement in the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security to contribute new insight on the scalar politics of multilevel marine governance, showing how regional objectives are re-interpreted and prioritized as they translate into national policy and practice.

Rapid expansion of oil palm is leading to human-elephant conflicts in North Kalimantan province of Indonesia

This study identifies patterns and trends in human elephant conflict in the Tulin Onsoi subdistrict, specifically in relation to the rapid development of oil palm plantations. The study provides a description of current land use changes and analyzes how HEC influences local people's perceptions of and attitudes toward the conservation of the Bornean elephant.

A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats.

Fish, trade and food security: Moving beyond ‘availability’ discourse in marine conservation

The goal of food security increasingly serves as an objective and justification for marine conservation in the global south. In the marine conservation literature this potential link is seldom based upon detailed analysis of the socioeconomic pathways between fish and food security, is often based on limited assumptions about increasing the availability of fish stocks, and downplays the role of trade. Yet, the relationship between fish and food security is multi-faceted and complex, with various local contextual factors that mediate between fish and food security.

Exploring ‘islandness’ and the impacts of nature conservation through the lens of wellbeing

Motivated by growing concern as to the many threats that islands face, subsequent calls for more extensive island nature conservation and recent discussion in the conservation literature about the potential for wellbeing as a useful approach to understanding how conservation affects people's lives, this paper reviews the literature in order to explore how islands and wellbeing relate and how conservation might impact that relationship.

Establishing freshwater protected areas to protect biodiversity and improve food security in the Philippines

This paper describes the efforts to establish a network of community-conserved areas in the municipality of San Mariano on Luzon, with the dual aim to protect the Philippine crocodile and to improve inland fisheries. The necessary steps to establish a community-conserved area are summarized, and their sustainability assessed.

Balancing between livelihood and biodiversity conservation: a model study on gear selectivity for harvesting small indigenous fishes in southern Bangladesh

This study has determined a suitable mesh size for small indigenous fish species (SIS) harvesting and has also developed a new gill net operation technique taking into consideration of aquatic biodiversity conservation, the daily intake of micro-nutrients and the livelihood of the rural community. It provides an insight into how employment of specialized fishing gear can help balance SIS fishing as a source of the rural community’s livelihood against biodiversity conservation.

Willingness to pay for conserving Layawan watershed for domestic water supply in Oroquieta City, Philippines

The sustainability of domestic water supply from the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City critically depends on past and present conservation activities and the availability of funds from stakeholders such as households, communities, non-government organizations, private entities and government agencies. This study determined the willingness to pay (WTP) particularly of households in Oroquieta City to finance conservation projects in Layawan Watershed to ensure the sustainability of domestic water supply.

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