Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when bacteria change and become resistant to antibiotics used to treat the infections they cause. The interconnected nature of agri-food systems means that AMR can spread, posing a major threat to public and animal health as well as the structure and sustainability of food production. One Health recognizes this interconnectedness as well as the need to apply a collaborative, multisectoral and transdisciplinary approach. WorldFish is partnering with Cefas and the University of Exeter to carry out study and research on AMR on pond culture.
Aquaculture systems are highly complex and influenced by environmental, biological, cultural, socio-economic and human behavioural factors. The growing importance of aquaculture is fuelling a transition of small-scale farming to industrial intensification in LMICs. Two interdisciplinary workshops were held in 2018, in Vietnam and Egypt. They aim to use a ‘systems-thinking’ approach to map aquaculture systems and identify potential hotspots for the emergence and selection of resistance and human exposure to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant organisms.
Shrimp culture is of central importance in Bangladesh, shrimp being the cash component of many smallholder, polyculture fish farming systems. Shrimp also contributes substantial income through exports. However, production remains low compared with other countries for a number of reasons, including low availability of good quality post larvae (PL) seed stock, lack of credit facilities, and disease problems.
A brief account is given of parasites affecting tilapia and carp, covering helminths, bacteria and protozoa. Effects onproduction of culture species are considered in particular, indicating precautions to be taken to reduce possibility ofdisease.
Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013.
This paper attempts to review the use of antibiotics in aquaculture in Malaysia because of the heightened concerns over its use and abuse and its impact on human health and the environment. Health and environmental issues relating to antibiotic use and measures that can reduce or control the impacts are also discussed.
Any presence of bacterial human pathogen in shrimp products may be of public health concern. This note concludes that Salmonella do not appear to constitute a part of the microbial flora where shrimp culture is practiced in Thailand. Vibrio cholerae 01, the cause of cholera are rarely recovered from the environment with no isolates containing genes encoding cholera toxin. Further studies are needed to describe the prevalence of bacterial human pathogens in shrimp culture, especially determination of possible postharvest cross-contamnation with these pathogens
The use of antibiotics and other chemicals in controlling shrimp pathogens become ineffective as the strains grow more resistant to these chemicals. Moreover, the bacterial pathogen (Vibrio harveyi) produced biofilm coating that protects it from dying and disinfection procedures that are followed during pond preparation. Biological control is being considered as an alternative means of preventing shrimp disease outbreak. The main principle behind biological control is to enhance the growth of beneficial microorganisms which serve as antagonists or target pathogens.
Technology for effective and fast diagnosis of animal diseases is essential for developing aquaculture management strategies. This paper reviews the conventional techniques for shrimp disease diagnosis and discusses the emergence of nuclei acid probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based kits as powerful tools for rapid and accurate detection of shrimp diseases.
Earlier findings on epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) and the present observation of the authors on transmission of EUS to snakehead (Channa sp.) without skin damage provide evidence to suggest that the invasive fungus associated with EUS is a primary pathogen.