After commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands, the chapter reviews the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes as a result of abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, the introduction of invasive species and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals.
A preliminary mass-balance trophic model was constructed for the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (0 - 120 m depth). The ecosystem was partitioned into 15 trophic groups, and biomasses for selected groups were obtained from research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1987 and 1991. Trophic interactions of the groups are presented. The network analysis indicates that fishing fleets for demersal fishes and prawns have a major direct or indirect impact on most high-trophic level groups in the ecosystem.
Increased production of mola and other small fish can be achieved through stock enhancement and sustainable management of natural wetlands. Enhanced fish production can increase consumption and provide nutritional benefits, especially for women and young children, as they suffer from high rates of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies. Mola and other small fish, which are eaten whole, have high contents of vitamins and minerals. In recent years, there has been a reduction in fish production and biodiversity in wetland areas of Bangladesh.
This viewpoint paper explores the potential of genomics technology to provide accurate, rapid, and cost efficient observations of the marine environment. The use of such approaches in next generation marine monitoring programs will help achieve the goals of marine legislation implemented world-wide. Genomic methods can yield faster results from monitoring, easier and more reliable taxonomic identification, as well as quicker and better assessment of the environmental status of marine waters.
The Mekong River is home to the largest inland fishery in the world, which is due in part to its exceptional sediment and nutrient loads. The number of dams in the Basin is expected to increase from 16 in the year 2000 to between 77 and 136 by 2030. These dams retain and accumulate sediments and nutrients in their reservoirs; as such, planned dam development is expected to result in a 60% to 96% reduction in sediment flow to downstream Mekong waters.
Cambodian inland fish resources are part of the Mekong system. With 781 known freshwater and brackish fish species, the Mekong Basin has the second highest fish biodiversity in the world after the Amazon Basin in South America. Cambodia itself features 461 freshwater species, plus 468 marine species and 26 species found in both environments. This makes 955 fish species in total.
This guide was developed to document the process and activities that WorldFish staff have used and adapted as facilitators working with communities interested in marine resource management in Solomon Islands. It draws on the experiences from work conducted with FSPI and MFMR through ACIAR funded projects, with communities that had a primary interest in the management of coral reef fisheries. Since 2011 the process has been trialed and adapted further with communities interested in mangrove ecosystem management (through the MESCAL project).
The growth in world aquaculture required to meet the demands of society will result in ever-increasing pressure upon aquatic and terrestrial resources. There are also potential consequences on the environment and on biodiversity, as well as inevitable societal impacts. There is growing adoption of aspects of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA), which takes a holistic view of the developments in the sector in an attempt to enable sustainable growth while avoiding negative effects.
Anadarinids are marine bivalve molluscs harvested commercially and on a subsistence basis in many warm temperate to tropical countries. They are frequently called mangrove cockles, blood cockles or simply cockles, although true cockles belong to a different bivalve family. In Asia the anadarinid cockles are known locally as kerang (Malay), hoy kreng (Thai) and si-ham (Cantonese). This article gives a brief account of the culture and biology of cockles in the Asian region.
A mass-balance steady-state trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem off the West Coasts of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia (10 - 60 m depth) was constructed using the Ecopath software. The ecosystem models were partitioned into 29 ecological/trophic groups. The input values (e.g. biomasses) for selected groups were obtained from the research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1972. The estimated mean trophic level of the fisheries catch for both models is about 3.3.