Social equity and benefits as the nexus of a transformative Blue Economy: A sectoral review of implications

The term ‘Blue Economy’ is increasingly used in various marine sectors and development frameworks. For it to be a truly useful approach, however, we argue that social benefits and equity must be explicitly prioritized alongside environmental and economic concerns. This integration of social dimensions within the Blue Economy is required to ensure that marine economic sectors contribute to achieving sustainable development goals.

Inclusive ecosystems? Women's participation in the aquatic ecosystem of Lake Malawi

Ecosystem services and their role in alleviating poverty are centered on a set of gendered social relations. The understanding of these relations between men and women in aquatic ecosystems can unveil gender-based opportunities and constraints along the value chains of the ecosystem services. A gender discourse perspective on participation of actors of an ecosystem can further facilitate the understanding of the complex and subtle ways in which gender is represented, constructed, and contested. This paper analyses the barriers to the participation of women in the fishing industry.

Aquatic habitats in the Ayeyarwady Basin and their biodiversity

This document provides a description of the general freshwater habitats found throughout the Ayeyarwady Basin. With a wide range of riverine and wetland habitats and high levels of species biodiversity, the Ayeyarwady River remains an ecologically important area and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. However, the habitats of the Ayeyarwady River, from the mountain’s rivers in the Eastern Himalayas to the Outer Delta Islands, are increasingly being subjected to intense and growing pressure from habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, and over-exploitation of natural resources.


After commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands, the chapter reviews the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes as a result of abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, the introduction of invasive species and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals.

Trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the west coast of peninsular Malaysia

A preliminary mass-balance trophic model was constructed for the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (0 - 120 m depth). The ecosystem was partitioned into 15 trophic groups, and biomasses for selected groups were obtained from research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1987 and 1991. Trophic interactions of the groups are presented. The network analysis indicates that fishing fleets for demersal fishes and prawns have a major direct or indirect impact on most high-trophic level groups in the ecosystem.

A holistic, ecosystem approach to investigating tropical multispecies reservoir fisheries

An account is given of the methodology and findings of a holistic, ecosystemic investigation of the multispecies fisheries of Bukit Merah Reservoir in Malaysia in 1978-80. The need for sound biological and ecological understanding of the resources as a basis for management decision is demonstrated.

Food security and the coral Triangle Initiative

The Asia-Pacific's Coral Triangle is defined by its extremely high marine biodiversity. Over one hundred million people living in its coastal zones use this biodiversity to support their livelihoods. Hundreds of millions more derive nutritious food directly from the region's marine resources and through local, regional and global trade. Biodiversity and its values to society are threatened by demographic and habitat change, rising demand, intensive harvesting and climate change.


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