Tracking nutrient flows in a multi-enterprise farming systems with a mass-balance model (ECOPATH)

Whether grown for sale or for on-farm consumption, vegetables and other crops are often managed as stand-alone, monoculture enterprises. Integrated farming can help improve the nutrient output-input balance sheet and efficiency, not only for each component, but for the whole farm agroecosystem. Quantitative methods that can assist farmers and researchers improve diversified and integrated natural resources management systems are emerging from the agricultural and ecological sciences.

Reconciling multiple societal objectives in cross-scale marine governance: Solomon Islands’ engagement in the Coral Triangle Initiative

Environmental governance aims to reconcile an expanding set of societal objectives at ever-larger scales despite the challenges that remain in integrating conservation and development at smaller scales. The authors examine Solomon Islands’ engagement in the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security to contribute new insight on the scalar politics of multilevel marine governance, showing how regional objectives are re-interpreted and prioritized as they translate into national policy and practice.

A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks

Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats.

Establishing freshwater protected areas to protect biodiversity and improve food security in the Philippines

This paper describes the efforts to establish a network of community-conserved areas in the municipality of San Mariano on Luzon, with the dual aim to protect the Philippine crocodile and to improve inland fisheries. The necessary steps to establish a community-conserved area are summarized, and their sustainability assessed.

Conflicts over natural resource scarcity in the aquatic ecosystem of the Lake Chilwa

This paper examines the linkage between resource scarcity and conflict during the 2012 Lake Chilwa water level recession. Ecosystem degradation and resource scarcity negatively affect many poor people dependent on aquatic systems such as river floodplains and wetlands. The need to identify and implement innovative measures to manage the scarce resources in these systems has sometimes resulted in conflicts among the various resource users such as fishers, farmers and political groups.

Building organisational capacity for ecosystem-based adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the Lake Chilwa Basin

This chapter presents an analysis of organisational capacity for climate change management (especially adaptation) and disaster risk management in the Lake Chilwa Basin developed through the implementation of the programme. The analysis is based on data and information obtained through a review of literature including baseline, progress and evaluation reports from the programme and other projects, physical evidence of activities implemented in the field, and narratives from key informants consisting of technical personnel in relevant sectors, traditional and opinion leaders.

Aquatic habitats in the Ayeyarwady Basin and their biodiversity

This document provides a description of the general freshwater habitats found throughout the Ayeyarwady Basin. With a wide range of riverine and wetland habitats and high levels of species biodiversity, the Ayeyarwady River remains an ecologically important area and one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. However, the habitats of the Ayeyarwady River, from the mountain’s rivers in the Eastern Himalayas to the Outer Delta Islands, are increasingly being subjected to intense and growing pressure from habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, and over-exploitation of natural resources.

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