The growing number of countries investigating the potential for releasing cultured juveniles to augment coastal fisheries resulted in the First International Symposium on Stock Enhancement and Sea Ranching (ISSESR) in Norway in 1997. The 1st and 2nd ISSESR, in Japan in 2002, were instrumental in developing methods for mass production of environmentally fit juveniles and for releasing them in responsible ways. The 3rd ISSESR, held in the U.S.A. in 2006 (www.SeaRanching.org), ushered the discipline into a new era.
We provide a review of the assemblage structure of demersal fish resources in four South and Southeast Asian countries. Multivariate techniques (classification and ordination analysis) were used to analyze scientific trawl survey data from a collaborative project in the region. Analyses covered major coastal fishing areas in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. This represents the first such assessment of fish assemblages for the region using a standard analysis framework. Results indicate that spatial patterns of demersal assemblages are influenced by depth.
Increases in fish demand in the coming decades are projected to be largely met by growth of aquaculture. However, increased aquaculture production is linked to higher demand for natural resources and energy as well as emissions to the environment. This paper explores the use of Life Cycle Assessment to improve knowledge of potential environmental impacts of future aquaculture growth. Different scenarios of future aquaculture development are taken into account in calculating the life cycle environmental impacts.
Climate change with its attendant geophysical hazards is well studied. A great deal of attention has gone into analyzing climate change impacts as well as searching out possible mitigating adaptive strategies. These matters are very real concerns, especially for coastal communities. Such communities are often the most vulnerable to climate change, since their citizens frequently live in abject poverty and have limited capacity to adapt to geophysical hazards.
Where natural resources are a key component of the rural economy, the ability of the poor to realize their visions for the future depends significantly on institutional structures that govern resource access and management. This case study reports on an initiative on the shores of Lake Kariba in Zambia, where lakeshore residents face competition over fishing, tourism, and commercial aquaculture.
In this volume, we seek a common understanding of three environmental problems linked to land use change in Southeast Asia: smoke pollution, degradation of biodiversity functions, and degradation of watershed functions. The objectives of this special issue are to identify usable data and methods for quantifying the impact of land use change on these environmental problems, to identify gaps in either data or methods and, where gap exist, to set priorities for filling them. That assessment will be done in greater detail in the concluding chapter (Tomich et al.., this issue).
Aquaculture operations should include a comprehensive biosafety program because of the risks they may impose on biological resources in the environments into which cultured organisms may escape. Risk assessment incorporates hazard identification and risk analysis. Risk analysis encompasses describing the likelihood that a hazard and its consequences will occur and the severity of realization of a consequence.
Rapid and detailed post-tsunami surveys carried out in the Langkawi archipelago in January 2005 showed that the coral reefs do not suffer any significant structural damage. Nevertheless, there were signs of recent sediment resuspension at the sites studied. The diversity and abundance of coral reef fishes and invertebrates were low. However, this was not attributed to the tsunami effect but rather to the present environmental conditions.
The introduction of alien species into ecosystems has the potential to adversely affect biological diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), an international agreement with 182 member countries including 53 in Africa, requires parties to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. The parties to the Convention have developed guiding principles for the prevention, introduction, and mitigation of impacts of alien species, which are an important guide for managing species introductions.
In tropical floodplain systems and rivers, how to address the relationships between environmental modification due to development (dams construction, extracting water, etc...) and natural fish production? Environmental modelling is a promising tool, provided that the frequent paucity of data can be circumvented. We present here the three parts of an approach that has been developed in 2000-2001 in the Mekong River Basin: 1) Study of all ecological parameters involved in the prediction of fishery harvest.