This review is prepared as part of the FAO Project “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring in aquaculture”. The review provides a compilation, review and synthesis of existing EIA and environmental monitoring procedures and practices in aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region, the largest aquaculture-producing region in the world. This review, as in other regions, gives special consideration to four areas related to EIA and monitoring in aquaculture including: (1) the requirements (2) the practice (3) the effectiveness and (4) suggestions for improvements.
Ways of evaluating the effects of environmental degradation from coral mining to reef fish communties in Maldives are presented.
Blast fishing has been a widespread and accepted fishing technique in Indonesia for over 50 years. The largest coral reef fishery in Indonesia is around the Spermonde archipelago in southwest Sulawesi. With the expanding population and the increasing demand for fish for export, fishing has intensified and fish catches per unit effort are stable or declining. The use of bombs made with a mixture of kerosene and fertilizer is widely prevalent. In the market of the city of Ujung Pendang, an estimated 10-40% of the fish from capture fisheries are caught through blast fishing.
Fishing methods, catches, fish species diversity, water quality and diets were examined in the middle Nyong River basin of south-central Cameroon over five years. Out of 79 indigenous species from the upper and middle Nyong in museum collections, 17 indigenous species added in this study (total = 100) and two feral alien species, only 38 are regularly captured by commercial fishers, and only 18 of these are sufficiently abundant and large enough to be of importance as food fish. Two of the most important are the alien Oreochromis niloticus and Heterotis niloticus.
Volatile fuel prices are a threat to the viability of UK fishing communities. The economic and social impacts of rising fuel costs for fishers and communities in southwest England are examined. Fuel prices doubled between early 2007 and mid-2008, whereas fish prices remained relatively stable throughout as a result of the price-setting power of seafood buyers. It was the fishers who absorbed the increased costs, resulting in significant loss of income, reduced job security, and problems in recruiting crew.
This research note is provided as a supplement to the technical report, “Influence of Built Structures on Livelihoods: Case Studies of Road Development, Irrigation, and Fishing Lots," as part of the livelihoods component of the “Study of the Influence of Built Structures on the Fisheries of the Tonle Sap".
The report begins with an overview of the current status of world aquaculture. It then goes on to describe an approach for estimating the current combined biophysical resource demands of aquaculture for producer countries and regions. Following a comparison of these results with those available for other animal food production sectors the report then examines the consequences of likely future trends in production on the environmental impacts of aquaculture.
Commercial aquaculture in Oceania is currently restricted to the red alga Eucheuma sp., the blacklip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera and penaeid shrimp, principally Penaeus monodon. There have been numerous attempts to cultivate exotic species of bivalves, crustaceans and fish, many of which have been unsuccessful in terms of aquaculture but which have resulted in wild stocks of the exotic species becoming established.
Aquaculture (18%) and aquarium (77%) species comprise most of the species which are brought into the Philippines, and although meant to be confined to culture and aquarium facilities, some have escaped to natural waters, established themselves and have become invasive - with adverse impacts to indigenous species and/or the ecosystems. Of the 159 fish species introduced to the Philippines, only 39 have been reported as established in the wild, four have not established and the remaining 116 have unknown status of establishment.
Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Boli-nao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance-sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the hermatypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0.4%/yr to cyanide, and 0.03%/yr to coral-grabbing anchors, the potential coral recovery rate reduced by about one third from 3.8%/yr in the absence of disturbances to 2.4%/yr.