Malaysia is one of the world's most biologically diverse countries, ranking twelfth worldwide. Most documented works on biodiversity are studies on taxonomy and species abundance. The genetic diversity of marine species and species indicators used for estimating ecosystem health are poorly understood. There is little documentation on the changes in species composition and abundance over time in the varous ecosystems.
A discussion is presented on the topic of maintaining genetic diversity in aquatic ecosystems, considering the various threats caused by irreversible damage or loss to the environment. The current situation in aquaculture and future prospects regarding the conservation and protection of endangered species are outlined, describing the case of tilapias in Africa as one particular example of fish conservation.
The BayFish-Bac Lieu model presented in this chapter is a Bayesian model that aims to identify optimal water control regimes and trade-offs between water uses in order to improve management of water-dependent resources in the inland coastal area of Bac Lieu Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The model was developed between 2004 and 2007 and integrated local databases, outputs from the Vietnam River Systems and Plains (VRSAP) model and stakeholder consultations.
An account is given of the principles recommended to be incorporated into the environmental policies of ASEAN, concerning sound waste management strategies, as discussed at the conference on waste management in the coastal areas of the ASEAN region, held in Singapore on 28-30 June 1991.
Fisheries are an important source of protein and employment for Sri Lanka’s population. The declaration of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1976 gave the country a water area larger than its land area. The coastal fisheries resources consist of small and large pelagic fish, demersal and coral reef fish, invertebrates, shrimps and crabs. The small pelagic fish contribute 70% of the catch from coastal waters with an estimated annual production of 152 752 t in 1997.
Rural households who fail to gain a voice in decisions over the management of shared forests, pasturelands, wetlands and fisheries face heightened risks to their livelihoods, particularly as competition increases between existing and new user groups. Exclusion from decision-making increases vulnerability of rural households, making it more difficult for them to move out of poverty and thwarting broader efforts to achieve sustainable resource management. Poor rural women in particular often face institutionalized barriers to effective participation in resource management.
This paper reviews the coastal fishery resources of Bangladesh emphasizing the coastal environment, capture fisheries and management issues relative to the sector. Bangladesh’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers an area of about 166 000 km2. This area has abundant natural resources such as fish, shrimps, crabs and other marine products. Shrimp and fish trawling is the most important economic activity in this area. The fishery sector makes a significant contribution to the national economy in terms of foreign exchange, income generation and employment.
Co-management of natural resources entails sharing authority and responsibility among government agencies, industry associations and community-based institutions. Policymakers and development agencies have embraced the approach because of the potential to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of management efforts focused on common-pool resources such as forests, pasturelands, wetlands and fisheries.
Where natural resources are a key component of the rural economy, the ability of the poor to realize their visions for the future depends significantly on institutional structures that govern resource access and management. This case study reports on an initiative on the shores of Lake Kariba in Zambia, where lakeshore residents face competition over fishing, tourism, and commercial aquaculture.
In this volume, we seek a common understanding of three environmental problems linked to land use change in Southeast Asia: smoke pollution, degradation of biodiversity functions, and degradation of watershed functions. The objectives of this special issue are to identify usable data and methods for quantifying the impact of land use change on these environmental problems, to identify gaps in either data or methods and, where gap exist, to set priorities for filling them. That assessment will be done in greater detail in the concluding chapter (Tomich et al.., this issue).