Aquaculture science is young and lacks a strong research base. The application of biotechnology in aquaculture holds great promise but the interests of small scale fish farmers and the need for environmental conservation must be carefully considered. The paper reviews the limited application of biotechnology in aquaculture so far, and considers future possibilities in genetic improvement of farmed aquatic organisms and development of better farming systems.
Agro-ecosystems analysis and fanner participatory research provide the basis for the Integrated Resources Management `IRM' approach to the development of integrated aquaculture farming systems. The approach seeks to reach beyond the few existing fish farmers and to find additional roles for aquaculture in rehabilitating degraded farm environments and in improving the economic status of many small-scale farmers.
Fifty years ago Ghana's Mampong Valley was a lush green forested area. Unhappily, like most of Africa, the local farming methods have not kept pace with population growth. Per capita food production has been in steady decline since the early 1970s. Most observers see a gloomy future in the extensive farming practices, deforestation, bush fires and overgrazing. Agricultural research and development still remain focused on yield problems of a few major crops.
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In the backdrop of the declining trend in inland capture fisheries production in Bangladesh over the years, attention is being directed to aquaculture in small waterbodies to fill the gap in supply of fish. A study was conducted in six sample village areas (unions) in two small upazilas of the country to assess the feasibility of this development alternative. A total of 1304 small waterbodies occupying 153-ha water area were identified through a survey and their present status of utilization and constraints and potentials to fish culture were assessed.
Small-scale fisheries in developing countries are often perceived as being a low-productivity and backward informal sector. As a result they are rarely considered in poverty reduction programmes and rural development planning. In this paper, we investigate the dual role of fish as a food and cash crop through data collected in river fisheries in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Fishing in this very remote rural region of DRC is operated both by men and women, as part of a household multiple activity livelihood strategy.
Research on fish production in Philippine rice fields began in 1974 at the Freshwater Aquaculture Center of the Central Luzon State University. The technology for growing rice and fish concurrently that resulted from this research was tested nationally, starting in 1976, by the then Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Natural Resources. During this period, 38 technicians were trained to take charge of field tests. The promising results obtained between October 1977 and March 1978 led to a pilot phase in May 1979 and the training of an additional 78 technicians.
The information presented here is extracted from the presentations and discussions at the Sixth Steering Committee Meeting of the International Network on Genetics in Aquaculture (INGA) held in Hanoi, Vietnam on 8-10 May 2001.
Jamaica, with its overfish marine resources, has become a major tilapia producer in Latin America led by a small number of large farms practicing tilapia culture with considerable commercial success. Across the country, however, aquaculture is typically practiced by a large number of small-scale fish farmers who own less than 1.0 ha of land. Production is constrained by lack of credit, finite land space and suitable soil type, but larger existing aquaculturists are expanding further for overseas markets.
The author suggested that integrated aquaculture can build up the productive capacity of smallholder farmers, feed people and protect the environment in Southern Africa.