This book chapter describes how aquaculture plays an important role in global efforts to eliminate hunger and malnutrition and make contributions to development by improving incomes, providing employment opportunities and increasing the returns on resource use.
The state of Assam in northeastern India has an excellent sub-tropical climate for the development of fresh water fish culture in a variety of aquatic bodies. Aquaculture not only plays an important role in nutrition but also in the rural economy of the State. A pilot project conducted with a group of resource poor tribal farmers revealed that a production of about 1 800 kg/ha/yr could be achieved from small seasonal homestead ponds through integrated use of locally available biological resources.
The snakehead (Channa striata ) is a common freshwater fish species in Malaysia. Details are given of a simple technique for breeding this species, suitable for small-scale farmers practising backyard aquaculture. Two techniques were used to induce spawning - the first used water level manipulation to simulate rain and the second used injected with human chorionic gonadotropic hormone. The former, more natural, spawning technique was found to provide a viable alternative for the small-scale farmer, being much simpler than hormone injection.
The great bulk of shrimp farming in India, as in most of Asia, as well as that of aquaculture in general in the region, is based on small scale farming activities, and in this regard, is no exception to other primary sector activities. The work on the development of better management practices (BMPs) on the shrimp culture sector commenced with the recognition of the need to place the sector on a firmer footing, while combating the problems of frequent disease occurrences, and to ensure its long term sustainability.
Productivity enhancement has traditionally been the main focus of agricultural research to alleviate poverty and enhance food security of poor farmers in the developing world. Recently, the harmful impact of climate change, economic volatility, and other external shocks on poor farmers has led to concern that resilience should feature alongside productivity as a major objective of research.
A cheap method of propagating the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, by incubating the fertilized eggs in a cage placed directly in a flowing river is described. Hatching ranged between 39 and 70%. This is not significantly different from the commonly used water recirculating flow through system. The economic advantages of the river hatching method are discussed with special emphasis on the rural fish farmers.
Aquaculture in riceland has been practiced in Mekong Delta, Vietnam for a long time and integrated rice-freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming has become more and more popular. The integrated farming systems developed and practiced by farmers in the area to produce more food and more cash crops are presented and discussed.
This document is part of a series of 5 technical manuals produced by the Challenge Program Project CP34 “Improved fisheries productivity and management in tropical reservoirs”. The Water Research Institute (WRI) in Akosombo, Ghana, is working to bring cage aquaculture technology to smallholder farmers. The stocking, feeding and cage-construction technology piloted by WRI is now being widely adopted in the Lower Volta basin in Ghana. The results of WRI research over the period 2005-2009 are presented here as a guide to potential investors.
Identifying locally available ingredients to formulate tilapia feed that is nutritious but cheaper than existing commercial feeds promises productivity, livelihood, health and environmental benefits, especially by enabling local feed manufacturers.
Krishna and Godavari deltas are rice bowl of India. The Krishna and Godavari districts of the Andhra Pradesh in India have a flourishing agricultural production and the farmers of these areas make use of the mineral rich alluvium of the Krishna river delta more effectively for the purpose. Farmers extensively pumped groundwater for irrigation, industries and extensively used fertilizers for crops.