An account of research, which explored new biological and socioeconomic perspectives on bivalve mollusc culture to increase production and to improve the livelihood of farmers. It presents a review of the pathways in which aquatic macrophytes may be involved in the food production process, directly as human food, as livestock fodder, as fertilizer (mulch and manure, ash, green manure, compost, biogas slurry), and as food for aquatic herbivores, such as fish, turtles, rodents and manatees.
The paper focuses on the role of the relative prices in farmers' production behaviour and presents a model for explaining output variations among farmers. In the context of this production mode, the concepts of output elasticity, economies of scale, and technical and economic efficiency are explained using illustrative examples. The type of data used and the estimation techniques are briefly described and the distinction between average and frontier production functions is emphasized.
This paper examines freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farming in southwest Bangladesh where a large number of farmers have converted their rice fields to export oriented prawn farms, locally known as gher. The gher design potentially provides good opportunities for diversified production of prawn, fish, rice and dike crops, that has brought about a 'blue revolution'. The average annual yield of prawn, fish and rice was estimated at 467, 986 and 2,257 kg ha-1, respectively.
Since 1993, a series of aquatic resource co-management workshops have been on-going, established by the Lao government and fisheries agencies for village farmers in the Khong District in southern Laos, aiming for a sustainable use of inland capture fisheries resources. This article describes the mechanics involved and the participants' perspective, as well as reporting the outcomes and progress of the workshops so far.
In Thailand, grouper farming can provide an opportunity for poor households to generate substantial financial benefits. As the success of the Department of Fisheries project shows, opportunities will be greater with efforts to remove the barriers to initial investments, and support for farmers to sustain production.
This publication is adapted from the report of the project "Dissemination and adoption of milkfish aquaculture technology in the Philippines. 2007" The key lessons learned are highlighted: 1)Strengthen extension systems to better disseminate improved milkfish hatchery and nursery technologies. 2) Enhance the efficiency of milkfish grow-out culture by introducing restrictive feed management and polyculture with shrimp. 3) Train producer communities to add value by processing their milkfish harvest. 4) Improve milkfish farmers access to credit.
The production of wet-season rice followed by dry-season shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a common farming system in the south-western coastal region of Bangladesh. This chapter summarizes the experiments conducted in the farmers' fields during the rice- and shrimp-growing seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2006, with the aim of improving the total farm productivity of the rice-shrimp system through technological intervention.
Three low cost aquaculture technologies such as polyculture of carps and monoculture of Nile tilapia and monoculture of silver barb were developed and introduced to the farmers based on their socioeconomic conditions and pond attributes. Their common feature is reliance on on-farm resources, through integrating aquaculture into the existing farming systems. Among the socioeconomic factors affecting farmers' adoption of these technologies, training was the key variable.
Intensification of agriculture often requires external inputs, has negative environmental effects and increases risk, especially for small-scale producers. Integrated aquaculture-agriculture (IAA) instead uses on-farm synergy effects of crop and fish production. The impact of long-term IAA training provided to small-scale farmers in Bangladesh is assessed using panel data from 260 project and 126 control farmers who were monitored from 2002/2003 to 2005/2006.
The potential for integrating aquaculture with agriculture has been widely recognized as a means of improving the use of inputs, diversifying output and economic opportunity, and enabling smallholder producers to maintain and strengthen livelihoods. This paper describes the outcomes of this approach and explains the extent to which it has been taken up and has led to sustained and self-generated capacity. Based in particular on experience in Malawi, Ghana and Cameroon, it also considers implications more widely in the region.