Over the last four decades, the aquaculture sector especially in developing countries has experienced dramatic growth. The increase in aquaculture production is a combination of area expansion and technological change (enhanced strains, input of feed and fertilizer, and improved management). One example of such technological change is the selective breeding efforts on tilapia that were initiated in 1988 by the WorldFish Center (then ICLARM) together with (inter-)national partners.
Twenty species of sea cucumbers from India are described briefly, with photographs which will enable research workers and farmers to identify them.
The Development of Sustainable Aquaculture Project (DSAP) was authorized by USAID. This report covers activities for the three months of the project, 1 June 2001 through 30 September 2001. The main thrust of the DSAP is to sponsor on-farm aquaculture production demonstrations implemented through co-operating NGO partners. These demonstrations are expected to show farmers and their neighbors the profitability of managed aquaculture systems as small business operations.
In the State of Assam, floodplains cover 2.6 million ha of area that is traditionally rice growing. The ecosystem in the rice-growing areas has undergone major changes as a result of various developmental activities and adoption of modern farming technology. Rice fields were once the major source of fish for the rural farmers. There has been a sharp decline in fish population in rice field leading to a chronic shortage of fish in the State and a deterioration of the rice ecosystem.
The sustainable development of aquaculture in Egypt needs the efforts coordinated of different sectors. Disease prevention is the most important aspect for protecting the success in the field of aquaculture. Egyptian farmers, like other farmers in other countries, use different chemicals and antibiotics to treat fish diseases. This approach is dangerous to aquaculture because of the residue in fish body and also for the development of drug resistant bacteria that not only affect fish but also induce harmful effect on humans and may have a deteriorative effect on the environment.
To measure the impact of past projects on the sustained adoption and development of aquaculture, and to assess the potential for future growth, a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) based on the Research Tool for Natural Resource Management, Monitoring and Evaluation (RESTORE) of 100 farmers (62 with fishponds, 38 without) was undertaken between January and August 2001 in the Noun Division of Western Province, Cameroon. The average household of 14 persons possessed 5.5 ha of land. Educational level is low (less then 35% above primary, 24% illiterate).
Details are given of activities conducted in Zomba, Malawi, in order to demonstrate new aquaculture technologies and encourage their use by smallholder fish farmers. The following technologies were introduced: napier grass as a pond output; use of a reed fence for harvesting fish; developing a high-quality compost as a pond input; vegetable-pond integration; chicken-pond integration; smoking kiln; pond stirring; and rice-fish integration. The reactions of the farmers to these technologies and their testing by the farmers are outlined briefly.
The Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam has high potential for coastal aquaculture, including mollusc culture. Many mollusc species are cultured for domestic and export markets including white clam (Meretrix lyrata Showerby) and blood cockle (Arca granosa). Techniques for clam farming include the nursery and grow-out phases. At present, there are approximately 600 coastal families engaged in clam farming over a total area of 1,870 ha, of which 82.63% is used for the grow-out phased and 17.7% for the nursery phase.
Environmental changes due to 2 decades of drought have modified the ecosystem of the Basse Casamance, Senegal thus forcing farmers to change their practices. They have built fish ponds and diversified into crops such as peanut, millet, sorghum, cassava and vegetables. The ponds have 2 purposes - to protect ricefields against inflow of brackishwater and to raise fish. The fish complements rice, which is the main diet, adding animal protein and serving as a source of income.
Technology Assessment and Refinement through the Institution Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) is the latest participatory extension model successfully undertaken by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in India. The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute has been implementing IVLP since 2001 to assess and refine the technologies of the coastal agro ecosystems at Elamkunnapuzha village (Vypeen Island) in the Ernakulam District of Kerala.