This document is part of a series of 5 technical manuals produced by the Challenge Program Project CP34 “Improved fisheries productivity and management in tropical reservoirs”. Inland capture fisheries in India have declined in recent years, leaving thousands of fishers to sink deeper into poverty. Freshwater aquaculture in small water bodies like ponds now contributes 80% of the country's inland fish production.
The major constraint to the development of aquaculture in Nigeria has been the non-availability of fingerlings in required numbers of cultivable species. A specifically designed trap to collect mullet (Liza falcipinnis; Liza grandisquamis) juveniles during high tides was successful in collecting juveniles year-round. The collectors was more successful during night spring tides than during neap tides or daytime collections.
This document is part of a series of 5 technical manuals produced by the Challenge Program Project CP34 “Improved fisheries productivity and management in tropical reservoirs”. The reservoirs of India have a combined surface area of 3.25 million hectares (ha), mostly in the tropical zone, which makes them the country's most important inland water resource, with huge untapped potential. The prime objective of cage culture discussed here is to rear fingerlings measuring >100 millimetres (mm) in length, especially carp, for stocking reservoirs.
To inform decisions on improving the yields of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings in earthen ponds, the hypothesis that composts and leaks were partly responsible for usually low and variable fry survivals was tested, through comparison of treatments and simple regression. The occurrence of amphibians was significantly higher (P<0.05) and survival of fry was significantly lower (P<0.02) in ponds with composts than in those without.
Based largely on FAO programs that address rural poverty, small-scale hatcheries have been developed in Africa to produce catfish and tilapia fingerlings. Production practices that fail to maintain genetic diversity, however, often limit the growth performance of the fingerlings. Growth rates up to 40% lower than those of wild fish potentially cost African farmers over U.S. $200 million a year.
This study was designed to determine the effect of complete substitution of fish meal (FM) by three plant protein sources including extruded soybean meal (SBM), extruded full-fat soybean (FFSB) and corn gluten meal (CGM) on growth and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and tilapia galilae Sarothrodon galilaeus. Four isonitrogenous of crude protein (ca. 28.0%) and isocaloric (ca. 19 MJ kg1) experimental diets were formulated. The control diet (diet 1) was prepared with FM as the main protein sources.
The availability and quality of fingerlings for stocking in aquaculture ponds have repeatedly been identified as a key constraint to the development of aquaculture in Africa. Government hatcheries have generally failed to achieve sustainability and the private sector is impeded by the lack of marketing information and appropriate technological assistance. At present, the main aquaculture species in the continent are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus).
While stocking floodplain depressions or beels with fingerlings is a common form of fisheries management in Bangladesh, bio-economic guidance for improving the outcome of stocking strategies is sparse. The Community-Based Fisheries Management (CBFM) Project, funded by the Ford Foundation and the UK Government’s Department for International Development (DfID) promoted stocking practices in beels throughout the country as a means to improve fisher livelihoods. This paper describes an empirical bio-economic model developed using data generated under the CBFM project.
Human and institutional capacities for developing and managing genetically improved tilapia in Africa are discussed. Discussions are related particularly to the status of hatcheries, rearing facilities, research and extension services, training in genetic enhancement, and fish transfer in major aquaculture countries in Africa. The leading aquaculture producing countries are Egypt and Nigeria along with nine other countries with some intermediate levels of fish production. The availability of quality fry and fingerlings constitutes a major constraint.
Production and supply of fish seed-stock are essential for the promotion of aquaculture. Traditional inland aquaculture was based on the collection of seed-stock from rivers and required the sorting and acclimatising of mixed species. Fine meshed nylon net cages ‘hapas’ have been used for this purpose for Chinese carps in China and in Bangladesh and India for Indian major carp for a long time. Hapa nursing of small fry to larger, more predator-resistant fingerlings has been the focus for intensification of aquaculture in North East Thailand and Lao PDR.