This paper assesses how aquaculture can contribute to sustainable food security for the low income in the developing world. Food security, defined as the physical and economic access, by all people at all times, to the basic food they need, is achieved when three conditions are met: sustainable and predictable food supply; access by all either through access to the means of production and/or through purchasing power; and adequate quality including nutritional quality, to support life functions.
In Africa, aquaculture has developed only recently and so far has made only a small contribution to economic development and food security. We review developments and identify constraints to the expansion of aquaculture in economic and rural development at the continental, national and farm levels. Past development initiatives failed to achieve sustainable increases in production. In contrast, a growing number of smallholder farmers in many countries have been adopting and adapting pond aquaculture to their existing farming systems and slowly increasing their production efficiency.
The chambo fisheries in the South East arm of Lake Malawi have been severely exploited and depleted due to overfishing habitat degradation and use of illegal gears. The government of Malawi is determined to reverse the decline in order to restore the chambo fishery so that it fulfils its potential in meeting the food security needs of the country. This paper summarizes briefly the existing experiences aimed at increasing the production of the chambo in the lakes of Malawi by producing and releasing juvenile fish, enhancing habitats, creating fish sanctuaries, and promoting aquaculture.
Fish has become a political commodity, thanks to its increasing scarcity and its high value. Aquaculture offers opportunities as the last frontier for sustaining the contribution of fish to food security. Asia is at the forefront of world aquaculture development and has many lessons to share, even within the region. Though aquaculture has made remarkable contributions to availability of food, it promises far more than has already been achieved. Aquaculture can produce more affordable fish, income-generat-ing activities and rural development.
This paper provides a framework for examining aquaculture’s linkages to food and nutritional security by elucidating key hypotheses concerning the role of aquaculture in household food and income systems in developing countries. Taking examples from developing Asia, where aquaculture showed a steady growth over the last decade, the implications of aquaculture development are examined from the standpoint of its impact on employment, income and consumption.
Proceedings of an international consultation held on 2-5 June 1997 in the North Sea Centre, Hirtshals, Denmark. Organized into three sessions, the first session focused on policy issues related to major changes in the demand and supply of fish. The second session focused on the impact of fisheries policies on food security and the environment. The third session was discussion of priority areas for fisheries policy research targeted to developing countries.
MYFC, a Livelihoods and Food Security Trust Fund (LIFT) funded project, aims to promote sustainable growth of aquaculture in Myanmar. By introducing low cost poly-culture combining small indigenous species of fish with mostly carps, the project intends to increase income, food and nutrition security for resource-poor households in the Ayeyarwady Delta and the central dry zone (CDZ). With a particular focus on women and children, and running over three years (2016-2018), MYFC will target four townships in each area.
Piecework (ganyu) is short-term, casual labor common in rural Zambia and neighboring countries. Reliance on piecework as a strategy to cope during food shortages in the rainy/cultivation season can restrict own-farm production, and thus, is regarded as an indicator of a household's vulnerability to food insecurity. Based on a household's level of participation in piecework, we explore this claim in rural Zambia using survey data collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 2009.
Coastal fisheries are central to the lives of rural Solomon Island villages, supplying daily food and serving as one of the few sources of income. Yet, it is predicted that coastal fisheries in Solomon Islands, like many countries in the Pacific region, will not be able to provide enough fish to meet peoples’ needs by 2030. Proposed strategies to prevent this scenario include improving the management of coastal fisheries and diversifying sources of fish by enhancing access to other fishes, either through aquaculture or the use of fish aggregating devices (FAD).
Aquaculture is still the fastest-growing food-producing sector and plays an important role in enhancing global food security and alleviating poverty. Tens of millions of people are engaged in aquaculture production, the majority of whom are small-scale farmers who have limited resources and are faced with difficulties due to increasing globalization and the resultant trade liberalization of aquaculture products. Despite these challenges, small-scale farmers remain innovative and continue to contribute to global aquaculture production.