Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is a globally significant aquaculture species rapidly gaining status as a farmed commodity. In West Africa, wild Nile tilapia genetic resources are abundant yet knowledge of fine-scale population structure and patterns of natural genetic variation are limited.
The anadromous Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha) live in the Bay of Bengal and migrate to the estuaries and freshwater rivers for spawning and nursing of the juveniles. This has led to two pertinent questions: (i) do all Hilsa shad that migrate from marine to freshwater rivers come from the same population? and (ii) is there any relationship between adults and juveniles of a particular habitat? To unravel the answers of the above two questions, the present study was conducted by identifying a set of neutral and adaptive genetic markers.
Continued growth of the aquaculture sector will rely on the availability of fish with traits that respond to the needs and preferences of these users along the value chain. Such trait responsiveness requires that fish breeding programmes have reliable knowledge of these users’ trait preferences. The present study found from a non-systematic literature review, that no fish breeding programme had reported user preference in their product-profile design.
FISH made significant progress during 2018 in producing and disseminating a suite of research innovations for the sustainable development of fisheries and aquaculture across Africa, Asia and the Pacific.
WorldFish initiated a selective breeding program in Abbassa--Egypt to develop and produce the genetically improved Nile tilapia strain known as “Genetically Improved Abbassa Nile tilapia (GIANT)”, adopting the same technology used for the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT), in Asia. WorldFish provided the Ninth Generation (G9) broodstock of the GIANT to 11 Broodstock Multiplication Centers (BMC’s) in five governorates; these centres then disseminated improved mixed-sex fry to 160 tilapia hatcheries which supplied all-male fry to 1,500 fish farms in 2017.
The Carp Genetic Improvement Program is the only program of its kind in the world concentrating on catla and silver carp as well as being the largest familybased selection program for rohu. The methods are similar to those used to develop faster growing chickens and livestock that have transformed their respective sectors. This brief highlights the methodology of the carp genetic programs.
Worldwide, the demand for fish continues to grow rapidly. Sustainable intensification and expansion of aquaculture and innovations in fish production systems will be needed to meet this increased demand. It is with this in mind that WorldFish’s 2017–2022 strategy and the CGIAR Research Program on Fish-Agri-Food Systems (FISH) (2017– 2022) have emphasized the need for doubling total food fish production by 2030, particularly in developing countries.
Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus L. is a promising candidate for aquaculture expansion in Northern Europe, Canada, and the United States because of its excellent growth at low temperature, tolerance to high rearing density, high fillet yield, and superior flesh texture and flavor. To support this industry, several breeding programs in these regions currently focus on selection for growth and delayed maturation. While the growth potential of existing strains has been improved, preharvest sexual maturation remains a problem in this industry.
Rohu (Labeo rohita) is a significant freshwater aquaculture species with approximately 1.8 Mt produced annually. Fin clips obtained from the founders of a newly established Bangladesh-based breeding population (~140 fish from each of the Halda, Jamuna, and Padma rivers) were used to identify 9157 SNPs and 14 411 silicoDArT markers using the Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) genotyping-by-sequencing platform known as DArTseq. After quality control, 1985 SNPs were retained and used to examine population structure within and among river systems.
In terms of quantity produced, Catla catla is the sixth most important finfish aquaculture species produced globally in 2015. It is primarily grown in South Asia, often on a small scale in polyculture with other species. In spite of its economic importance, in a number of countries, including Bangladesh, the quality of catla seed produced in hatcheries has historically suffered from high levels of inbreeding, uncontrolled interspecific hybridisation and negative selection.