Cambodia’s recent freshwater fishery sector reform, instigated at the top level of government, is one of the country’s most significant contemporary policy developments addressing natural resources management and rural development. Implemented in two main waves, the reforms culminated in the complete removal of inland commercial fishing lots. Yet serious problems still need to be addressed, including reportedly widespread illegal fishing, difficulties in protecting critical habitats, and competition among state agencies over resource management authority.
The Anambra and Imo River basins are richly endowed with fishery resources. The use of unconventional fishing methods, such as local poisonous herbs and chemicals and various explosives, threatens to destroy their aquatic resources. Some control measures to be taken are suggested in the following areas: education, patrols, cooperatives and legislation.
Fishing with explosives is still being practiced aroung Hong Kong. The first legislation against blast fishing was passed in Hong Kong in 1903. Since then, successive legislation has increased the penalties and fines on blast fishing and fishing with poisons. However, the problem has not been eliminated as enforcement puts pressure on the resources of the marine police. It would be more effective to educate the local communities on the destructive effects of these practices and make them more vigilant and responsible in controlling them.
Blast fishing has been a widespread and accepted fishing technique in Indonesia for over 50 years. The largest coral reef fishery in Indonesia is around the Spermonde archipelago in southwest Sulawesi. With the expanding population and the increasing demand for fish for export, fishing has intensified and fish catches per unit effort are stable or declining. The use of bombs made with a mixture of kerosene and fertilizer is widely prevalent. In the market of the city of Ujung Pendang, an estimated 10-40% of the fish from capture fisheries are caught through blast fishing.
The dynamite fishing operations in Sierra Leone are enumerated and discussed.
Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Boli-nao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance-sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the hermatypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0.4%/yr to cyanide, and 0.03%/yr to coral-grabbing anchors, the potential coral recovery rate reduced by about one third from 3.8%/yr in the absence of disturbances to 2.4%/yr.
The Cambodian government introduced a dramatic reform in 2001 that reduced the allocation of commercial fishing lots in favor of local community access. Hailed by community activists, the policy shift nevertheless accelerated a crisis in the sector, with effectively open access and very poor law enforcement leading to intense exploitation and a surge in illegal fishing.
Co-management of natural resources entails sharing authority and responsibility among government agencies, industry associations and community-based institutions. Policymakers and development agencies have embraced the approach because of the potential to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of management efforts focused on common-pool resources such as forests, pasturelands, wetlands and fisheries.
Ang layunin ng Proyekto sa Pamamahala sa mga Kayamanang-Baybayin (Coasttil Resources Management Project/CRMP) ay upang dagdagan ang umiiral na mga kakayanan sa boob ng rehiyon ng Asosyasyon ng mga Bansa sa Timog-Silangang Asya (Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ASEAN) upang isulong at ipatu pad ang mga pamamaraang ukol sa pamamahala sa mga kayamanang-baybayin—mga pamamaraang malawakan, nakapag papanatili ng kapaligiran at binubuo ng maraming aspeto.
In Tanzania, illegal and destructive fishing practices threaten environmental sustainability and the livelihoods of small-scale fishers. The future of several communities reliant on fisheries depends on finding a more effective ways of managing natural resources. WorldFish collaborated with local partners to educate fishers on the dangers of destructive fishing practices to help secure a healthy ocean for future generations.