Sri Lanka is an island country with a land area of 65 610 km2. With the declaration of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in 1976, the country gained sovereign rights over an ocean area of 536 000 km2 and EEZ extending from 24 to 200 nm. The continental shelf is about 26 000 km2 with an average width of around 22 km, and the coastline is 1 100 km long. The total annual fish production of Sri Lanka was 25 000 t in 1952 and 269 850 t in 1998. Major fish species caught in Sri Lankan waters are skipjack, blood fish, yellow fin tuna, mullet, shark, trevally, Spanish mackerel, prawns, lobsters.
Rock lobsters have been known to exist in the Aden Gulf since 1962, but the commercial catches of this valuable resource began in 1975. This short article gives an account of rock lobster fisheries in Yemen.
The spawning season of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille) was identified based on adult specimens collected monthly off northeastern Brazil, from August 1982 to July 1988. The maturity indices used were relative abundance of females with full spermatheca, eggs or rests of spermatheca, female gonad weight and relative abundance of stage four females. The main spawning activity occurs in February to May, with an occasional second peak in September/October.
India is endowed with a continental shelf of 0.5 million km2 and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of about 2 million km2. Almost half (39%) of the Indian population utilizes the marine fisheries resources. India ranked sixth worldwide in total fish production (4.95 million t) and second in inland fish production (2.24 million t) during 1995 - 96. Fish production expanded from 0.75 million t in 1950 - 51 to 4.95 million t in 1995 - 96, giving a significant increase at a cumulative growth rate of 4.2% per annum.
Fish production in Vietnam increased rapidly from 420 000 t in 1981 to 1 130 680 t in 1998. Likewise, there was an expansion in the number of motorized fishing boats from 29 584 units with an average horsepower (HP) of 19.8 boat-1 in 1981 to 71 800 units with an average HP of 26.2 in 1998. In 1995, fish production was valued at VN$2 475 billion (US$0.02 billion at 1 US$ = 11 041 VN$; source: oanda. com).
This study investigates the genetic structure and phylogeography of a broadcast spawning bivalve mollusc, Pinctada maxima, throughout the Indo-West Pacific and northern Australia. DNA sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analysed in 367 individuals sampled from nine populations across the Indo-West Pacific.
The depletion and degradation of the State marine and aquatic resources due to uncontrolled exploitation are the primary reasons for the enactment of fisheries laws. There are two approaches to the enforcement of these laws. Traditional law enforcement involves the intervention or actual performance by government through its designated and deputized agents. However, government activities are directed mainly at preventing further resource depletion. This is a shortcoming that prompted the conduct of alternative law enforcement strategies aimed at resource development.
Fish production in Malaysia increased steadily at 4.5% per annum from 801 000 t in 1985 to 1 280 906 t in 1997. Most of the production was contributed by marine capture fisheries, amounting to 1 168 973 t (91% of total production) in 1997, while the rest (132 700 t or 8%) came from inland fisheries and aquaculture. About 72% of the marine landings, or 837 574 t, were from Peninsular Malaysia while the rest were from the states of Sabah, Sarawak, and the Federal Territory Labuan.
The marine fisheries sector in Malaysia contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of income, foreign exchange and employment. In 1999, marine fisheries contributed 1.245 million t (90% of total fish production) valued at US$1.18 billion. The total value accounted for about 1.53% of national GDP and 11.31% of agricultural GDP. The export of fish and fishery products amounted to about US$210 million. The sector provided employment to about 80 000 fishers. Fisheries management is currently guided by the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3 1998 - 2010).
The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920–2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB).