Preservation of marine biodiversity deserves serious consideration as almost 65% of the earth's organisms (excluding insects) are marine. There is little knowledge at present on the status of marine biodiversity. However, the seas are an important source of protein for human consumption and genetic diversity is a key factor in ecosystem functioning, stability and resilience. Overfishing and destructive practices may have unalterable impact on marine biodiversity. This paper discusses measures that can be adopted to protect the most productive areas of the marine ecosystem.
The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss the concept and assessment of over capacity in small-scale marine fisheries, and the appropriate and integrated approaches to facilitating the removal of overcapacity. The chapter should assist governments and fisheries managers to prepare national and fishery-specific plans of action for the management of capacity in small-scale fisheries.
The rich marine resource of the Mafia District, Tanzania, especially its coral reefs and mangroves, are in danger of collapse. The proposed marine park faces chronic problems of dynamite fishing and coral mining. The Mafia fisheries resources and the importance of coral reefs are presented together with proposed measures to rescue the Mafia marine environment.
A total of 140 sets of parameters (a and b) of the length-weight relationships (LWR) of the form W=aL super(b) are presented for fishes caught in Cuban waters. These parameters cover 94 species of fish belonging to 43 families. Most of the parameters were compiled from 107 sets of published and unpublished studies. Twenty-five sets of parameters were from personal communications through colleagues in Cuba, while the remaining eight sets were estimated by the authors from unpublished data.
This chapter discusses how small-scale fisheries dependent human communities are interactive with marine ecosystems. It has shown how changes in the marine ecosystems can impact human fishing communities, and also how the responses to these human communities can exacerbate or ameliorate ecosystem changes.
The El Nino phenomenon is an "anomalous climatic condition in the tropical Pacific region which occurs every two to seven years and affects the global climate". There is a greater increase in the water surface temperature of the eastern tropical and central tropical Pacific during an El Nino episode relative to that of the western tropical Pacific. The phenomenon causes fluctuations in rainfall, resulting in drought in some areas and heavy rainfall in others.
A total of 73 sets of growth parameters for 34 species belonging to 12 families of marine fish caught in Cuban waters are presented. These parameters are compiled from existing studies (58 sets) or derived from data obtained in the original literature (15 sets).
Localized changes in the productivity of marine and inland waters induced by climate change will pose new challenges to the fishery and the aquaculture sectors in West Africa. However, climate change does not occur in isolation of other drivers of change: processes of environmental, economic and social change can affect the fishery sector, potentially creating additional vulnerability to climate change. Scenarios are a useful tool to explore uncertainties and understand non-climatic drivers of change.
This paper aims to consider the additional costs, in terms of human insecurity, of governance failures and development policy neglect in fisheries. We first review what is at stake by elaborating the current and potential contributions of fisheries to human security and economic development. We then outline how fisheries are currently governed, and why governance is failing, before reviewing the consequences of governance failure for human security.
Failures of fishery management to control fishing effort globally and how this affects the coral reef fisheries are discussed. The use of marine reserves in coral reef fisheries management is also emphasized.