The Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) in India developed bivalve farming technologies in the 1970s, but these were not widely adopted at the time. In 1993, CMFRI undertook an action research program to encourage farming of edible oysters (Crassostrea madrasensis), mussels (Perna viridis and Perna indica), clams (Paphia malabarica) and pearls (Pinctada fucata) along the southwest coast of India.
The article highlights briefly the economics of different types of fishing units operating along the Indian coast; analyzes the exploitation trend of major marine fishery resources in relation to its potential yield; and suggests policy measures for optimum exploitation of resources, conservation and management.
Zanzibar, one of the poorest areas of sub-Saharan Africa, has a good potential for foreign investment in offshore (EEZ) marine capture fisheries, in aquaculture and in fi sheries infrastructure. Zanzibar’s fisheries resources could be better managed in an effort to alleviate the poverty of its rural population and to provide food security. At present, Zanzibar’s fisheries are artisanal and its total annual production of fish of just over 20000 t, caught in inshore waters, is consumed locally.
Southeast Asian fisheries such as in San Miguel Bay, Philippines operate in a multi-gear and mixed-species situation. Marine capture fisheries in the Philippines are conventionally sub-divided into municipal (small-scale) and commercial (large-scale) based on vessel gross tonnage (GT) and arbitrarily delineated spatially on the basis on area where fishing operations are undertaken. Fisheries management interventions are usually focused on the effort control by fishing gear type or specific fisheries (or species).
Proponents of integrated, collaborative, and adaptive governance advocate the inclusion of a diversity of stakeholders and their knowledge and values in governance processes. This paper examines knowledge interactions at different scales of decision-making within two marine social-ecological systems in southern Kenya. Ecological knowledge systems are shown to be diverse and fluid even within broad conceptual classifications.
As part of the ongoing studies concerned with the small-scale fisheries of the South of Portugal, experimental fishing was carried out with monofilament gillnets and small hook longlines within the same area. Sixty-two species were caught, of which 20 were common to both gears. Pronounced differences in terms of the relative importance of different species in the catches were observed. Size selection patterns also differed, with highly overlapped hook catch distributions and few species showing evidence for size selectivity.
"Aquaculture and Food Security in the Solomon Islands" (ACIAR Project FIS/2009/061) was formulated to assist the Government of Solomon Islands in better understanding the future demand for aquaculture and particularly to develop a strategy to guide future development of sustainable inland aquaculture to support food security and secure livelihoods for the Solomon Islands in response to rising populations and climate change.
South Africa's marine resources are essentially fully exploited and in some cases over exploited. The Government of National Unity has embarked on the ambitious Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) to: meet the basic needs; develop the country's human resources; build economy; and democratize the state and society. Although fisheries can only be expected to play a minor role in contributing to RDP, the Programme have a role to play in managing South Africa's living marine resources.
Compensatory mechanisms of the Peruvian hake population (Merluccius gayi peruanus) in response to heavy exploitation and changes in species interaction are discussed. Changes in the rate of cannibalism, diet composition, maximization of fecundity and behavioral adaptation are noted.
In 1999, the world's seafood (fish, crustaceans, molluscs) production reached 106.8 miilion mt, with 92.9 million mt derived from capture fisheries and 13.9 million mt from marine/brackish water aquaculture. Out of the total seafood production, molluscs comprised 13.6 million mt, of which 3.4 million mt (25.2%) were from capture fisheries. Seafood is one of the most highly traded commodities in the world market, and has experienced a doubling of trade volume between 1984 and 1994.