The Marine Fishery Resources Development and Management Department of SEAFDEC (Malaysia), its objectives and activities are briefly presented.
This chapter re-examines the concept of territorialization to provide a framework for the anthropological analysis of the new phenomenon of transborder access to and appropriation of marine resources.
The marine fisheries of Trinidad and Tobago are mainly artisanal and involve about 8,000 fishers. The main fishing gear used are the gillnets, the troll, the shrimp trawl, the fishpot and the industrial longline. Landings total approximately 14,000 t annually with Scomberomorus brasiliensis, shrimps and sharks being the most abundant in the landings. Assessment studies indicate overfishing and inferior marketing is an important issue. Underexploited resources include clupeiods, deep shell and slope resources, and lobsters. The shrimp trawl and longline by-catch are not fully utilized.
The marine fisheries of Jamaica are almost entirely artisanal, with at least 15 000 fishers and an annual catch of approximately 7 000 t. A recent development is a small industrial fishery for queen conch and spiny lobster that earns significant foreign exchange for the country. The major aquatic resources are coral reef fishes, conch, lobster, small pelagics and seasonal large pelagics. The major fishing grounds are the southern island shelf and Pedro Bank, a large oceanic bank 150 km to the southwest of Kingston.
Details are given of the use of an aspect ratio of the caudal fin of fish as an index of metabolic level. Studies have shown that this ratio, besides correlating with food consumption, also has close relationships with natural mortality, longevity, red muscle content, gill area and growth performance.
The Programme for Integrated Development of Artisanal Fisheries in West Africa (IDAF) was initiated in 1983 to help some 20 coastal states from Mauritiana to Angola which wished to develop and manage their artisanal fisheries through participatory and integrated approaches. IDAF was initially financed by Denmark and Norway. The second phase of the programme which started in January 1989 and its third phase, July 1984 are entirely financed by Denmark through the Danish International Development Assistance (DANIDA).
There is an increasing ‘fish gap’ in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where fish supplies have failed to keep pace with the region’s growing demand. Despite the high dependence on fish for nutrition in much of the region, consumption is currently half the global average and declining. In SSA, as in many other regions globally, marine and inland capture fisheries resources are stagnating or decreasing, largely due to environmental or ecosystem changes and over-exploitation. Climate change is already altering the distribution of fish stocks and rainfall patterns upon which these fisheries depend.
This chapter highlights the important role of fisheries in providing livelihoods, trade and food security in the Southeast Asian region. It addresses the problem of decreasing fisheries and marine biodiversity and discusses legal and governance factors such as property rights and conflicts in this context. They authors finally identify opportunities for better fisheries management including transnational cooperation and improvements on the local level.
Sandfish is arguably the most commercially valuable of the tropical species of sea cucumber that are processed into bêche-de-mer. It is widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific, occurring in shallow inshore areas where it is easily accessible to coastal fishers. A-grade bêche-de-mer processed from sandfish commands some of the highest prices on the international market. But these same attributes also make it vulnerable to overexploitation. Sadly, this has happened in most places where it occurs.
Successful larval culture of most marine finfish and shellfish species still depending on live feeds, such as rotifers and Artemia. However, live feeds are expensive to produce and are often of variable quality and accounting for a significant proportion of the total operational costs of hatcheries. Furthermore, crashes of cultures due to bacteria or viral infections can result in interrupted supplies of live feeds and increase disease risks for cultured organisms.