This paper aims to describe the role of key players in the value chain for milkfish Chanos chanos (Forsskål, 1775) in a mariculture Park in Balingasag, Misamis Oriental in the Philippines with an emphasis on gender dimensions. It also estimates the value additions done by the key players and assesses implications on income distribution. Mapping the chain involved primary data collection through observations, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. The big, medium and small-scale fish cage operators – 90 % men – are the key players in production.
Fish is crucial to food and nutrition security in Solomon Islands, and demand is expected to increase due to a growing population. However, it is projected that current capture fisheries production will not meet this growing demand. Aquaculture has the potential to mitigate the capture fishery shortfall, and the Government of Solomon Islands is prioritizing aquaculture as a solution to meet future food and income needs. Aquaculture in Solomon Islands is still in early development.
The main purpose of the study is to collect information on the input-output relationships in milkfish (Chanos chanos ) production in the Philippines. The data (analysis of which will be complete in mid-1980) can then be used to improve production operations.
Milkfish, Chanos chanos Forskal, are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific and the Indian oceans. Their geographical distribution ranges from 40°E to about 100°W, and 30-40°N to 30-40°S. They are found in warm offshore waters of the Red Sea; the Indian Ocean from east Africa to the south and west coasts of India, the coasts of Ceylon, Malaya, Thailand, Vietnam and Taiwan; and the Pacific Ocean from southern Japan to Australia in the west and from south of San Francisco to southern Mexico in the east.
The authors have assembled a unified body of information on milkfish (Chanos chanos) aquaculture in the Philippines to pin-point where further efficiencies of resource use in the milkfish system can be obtained. Each of the subsystems-procurement, transformation, and delivery-is examined in turn. The major inefficiencies in the Philippine milkfish resource system occur in the transformation sub-system rather than in the fry procurement or delivery sub-systems.
Recall and recordkeeping surveys of 324 farms demonstrate the potential for improving yields in Philippine milkfish farms. Implications of observed economies of scale are also discussed.
The study focuses on the current structure of the milkfish industry by examining the development and changes in the production and processing technologies, and product demand, markets and institutions over the past decade. In particular it looks into the policy structure, the role of research and technology, and identification of parameters/ variables that has enhanced and/or hindered technology adoption by the small-holder operators, e.g., farmers, traders and processors.
The existing gap between experimental yield and potential yield under field conditions and actual yield is highlighted. The determinants of actual yield are investigated by estimating a Cobb-Douglas production function relating yield to 11 explanatory variables. The inputs found to have a significant impact on output were stocking of fry and finglerlings, age of pond, farm size, fertilizers, and miscellaneous operating costs. Estimates of the marginal physical productivity of the inputs are used to study the optimization of input allocation, e.g.
One real constraint to expanding production from aquaculture is the lack of knowledge or information on the economic relationships between inputs and output, in other words between what goes into a pond and what comes out. In the case of Philippine milk-fish farming, the inputs include everything from seed (fry or fingerlings) to farm labor, feed, fertilizers, pond maintenance and repairs, rental and pesticides. Some other variables that can affect production relate to the experience of the farmer and the size, age and tenure of his ponds, as well as their geographic location.
This publication is adapted from the report of the project "Dissemination and adoption of milkfish aquaculture technology in the Philippines. 2007" The key lessons learned are highlighted: 1)Strengthen extension systems to better disseminate improved milkfish hatchery and nursery technologies. 2) Enhance the efficiency of milkfish grow-out culture by introducing restrictive feed management and polyculture with shrimp. 3) Train producer communities to add value by processing their milkfish harvest. 4) Improve milkfish farmers access to credit.