Relative biomass per recruit of adult (i.e. sexually mature) fin to shellfish is shown to help in identifying levels of fishing mortality likely to lead to recruitment overfishing. This is illustrated with data from a Malaysian penaeid shrimp fishery.
The marine fisheries sector in Malaysia contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of income, foreign exchange and employment. In 1999, marine fisheries contributed 1.245 million t (90% of total fish production) valued at US$1.18 billion. The total value accounted for about 1.53% of national GDP and 11.31% of agricultural GDP. The export of fish and fishery products amounted to about US$210 million. The sector provided employment to about 80 000 fishers. Fisheries management is currently guided by the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3 1998 - 2010).
The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920–2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB).
Marine fisheries production in India has increased from 0.5 million t in 1950 to 2.47 million t in 1997. The gross value of fisheries landings in India was US$2.37 billion in 1997. The contribution of fisheries to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has risen from 0.7% in 1980 - 81 to 1.2% in 1994 - 95. The contribution to agricultural GDP has risen from 1.9% to 4%. Fisheries production also plays a critical role in food security and livelihood in rural areas.
This paper discusses fisheries management reforms through involving local level institutions (LLFI). It is based on studies which were undertaken on Tanzania’s Lake Victoria fishery where LLFIs were established through the formation of Local enforcement Units, later named Beach Management Units (BMU), between 1998 and 2002. The paper takes the view that the overfishing problems that confront Tanzania’s fisheries management authorities are best understood from a social science perspective. The argument is that most communities’ values and institutions are embedded in their societies.
Fisheries in the USA are managed under the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (MFCMA). By 1991, it was reported that fish stocks had declined considerably since the act came into force. A national Committee in Fisheries was set up in 1992 to investigate ways of improving fisheries management regimes. The committee's seven recommendations framed in four broad areas are: (1) prevent overfishing; (2) improve the institutional structure; (3) improve the quality of fishery science and data; and (4) move toward an ecosystem approach to fishery management.
A brief examination is made of Malthus' works during the 1800s regarding population growth, considering applications to fisheries resources and their management.
Preservation of marine biodiversity deserves serious consideration as almost 65% of the earth's organisms (excluding insects) are marine. There is little knowledge at present on the status of marine biodiversity. However, the seas are an important source of protein for human consumption and genetic diversity is a key factor in ecosystem functioning, stability and resilience. Overfishing and destructive practices may have unalterable impact on marine biodiversity. This paper discusses measures that can be adopted to protect the most productive areas of the marine ecosystem.