The paper points out some deficiencies and problems in evaluating consequences of excessive effort with single species and static models. The need for distinguishing between causes, symptoms and consequences of overfishing as a prerequisite for effective management is emphasized and several consequences of excessive effort, such as over-exploitation, over-capitalization, conflicts, vulnerability and reallocation costs, are discussed.
With limited success of western models to manage fisheries resources, Customary Marine Tenure (CMT) could be a more effective vehicle for forming and imposing sustainable management of sea cucumber resources in Solomon Islands. Analysis of national export data from 1991 to 2001 shows a decreased landing of sea cucumbers from a record level of 622 tonnes (dried) in 1991 to 240 tonnes (dried) in 2001, with > 75 % of the 2001 landings derived from species of medium- and low-commercial value.
The San Miguel Bay in Southern Luzon Island, Philippines is a large estuarine fishery with heavy concentrations ofboth trawl and non-trawl gears. The Bay was the site of an intensive interdisciplinary investigation by researchers inthe late 1970's and early 1980's. It was clear at that time that controls over levels of fishing effort and certain typesof gears were necessary. Five years later in 1986, the Bay still is characterized by extreme competition from an even larger number of competing vessels and fishermen.
The chambo fisheries in the South East arm of Lake Malawi have been severely exploited and depleted due to overfishing habitat degradation and use of illegal gears. The government of Malawi is determined to reverse the decline in order to restore the chambo fishery so that it fulfils its potential in meeting the food security needs of the country. This paper summarizes briefly the existing experiences aimed at increasing the production of the chambo in the lakes of Malawi by producing and releasing juvenile fish, enhancing habitats, creating fish sanctuaries, and promoting aquaculture.
The book describes an intensive four-year program of monitoring the community ecology and harvest patterns of a large fringing coral reef system in northeastern Philippines. Reef harvest methods included principally gathering, handlining, trapping, gillnetting, seining, coralling and spearfishing, both with and without air compressors. Blast and cyanide fishing have substantially diminished hard coral cover, as have coral-grabbing anchors.
An examination was made of data on the length and species composition of the commercial deepsea snapper fishery of the Kingdom of Tonga in order to determine possible use of such information in the determination ofstatus of exploitation. Six major species were used for the analysis--Pristipomoides filamentosus, Etelis coruscans, P. flavipinnis, E. carbunculus, Epinephelus morrhua and E. septembasciatus . Although catch and effort data do not indicate overexploitation of the fishery, the size differences observed for P.
The fisheries sector of Vietnam plays an important role in the social and economic development of the country. The sector contributes about 3% of the GDP and fish contributes about 40% of animal protein consumption in the country. In 1999, total fisheries production amounted to 1.8 million t. Of this, 1.2 million t was derived from marine capture fisheries and 0.6 million t from aquaculture. Fish exports were valued at US$971.12 million in the same year. Vietnam’s marine fisheries and coastal aquaculture have further potential for development.
An account is given of fisheries in Haiti which employ primitive technology, and problems regarding overfishingconsidered. Since boats used are small and motorless, there is no fishing activity in deep water and Haiti has to import fish to supply the needs of the people. Possibilities in aquaculture and also regulation and expansion of themarine fishery are examined.
Major factors that have contributed to the failure in Jamaica to implement fisheries management successfully are examined. Problems in the management expertise and infrastructure are detailed.
Commercial coral reef fisheries in Pohnpei (Micronesia) extract approximately 1,521 kg of reef fish daily (~500 MT year-1) from 152 km2 of surrounding reef. More than 153 species were represented during surveys, with 25 species very common or common within combined-gear catch. Acanthurids contributed the greatest to catch volume, with bluespine unicornfish, Naso unicornis, and orangespine unicornfish, Naso lituratus, among the most frequently observed herbivores. Nighttime spearfishing was the dominant fishing method and inner lagoon areas were primarily targeted.