A brief review is given of the demersal and pelagic fisheries of Southeast Asia, with emphasis on biological and socioeconomic factors (such as, for example, the presence of inshore shrimp stocks and mass unemployment, respectively) and which tend to promote over-exploitation of marine fish resources. It is shown that several models routinely used by fishery biologists to assess Southeast Asian fish stocks tend to lead to management advice that is less conservative than warranted. Straightforward remedies exist for the latter set of problems.
Daniel Pauly’s concept of Malthusian overfishing states that fisheries over-exploitation in tropical developing countries is caused primarily by excess human population. While it is certainly true that growing numbers of people are causing pressure on fishing resources, the concept of Malthusian overfishing downplays other, possibly causally prior factors such as relations of power in society, income distribution, and technological development. This article points out some possible pitfalls of making family planning the cornerstone of efforts to alleviate fishing pressure.
A review of the multispecies fisheries of Manila Bay (Philippines) and adjacent waters is presented, covering an area of 5,200 km super(2) and a depth range from 0 to 100 m. The available data on species and size composition oftrawl catches are too scanty to allow strong inferences, although they indicate overfishing.
Marine fisheries are an important source of protein, livelihood and export earnings for the Philippines. In 1994, totalmarine fisheries catch was 1.67 million t (62% of total fisheries production) valued at about US$1.65 billion. Ofthis total, 277 thousand t were demersal fishes, 885 thousand t small pelagics, 305 thousand t tunas and 203 thousand t other species or groups. Current catches have leveled off since 1991 (at a level near estimated maximum sustainable yield) and existing fishing effort is clearly too high.
This essay is an attempt to define overfishing in terms less technical than those generally used by fishery biologists. It started from the classical definition, then quickly moved on to concepts that may be more relevant to coastal zone management.
Excess capacity and overfishing are problems in the open-access, common-pool fisheries of the Java Sea. Data development analysis is used to estimate excess fishing capacity and the number of vessels to decommission in three Java Sea fisheries of Indonesia, the purse seine, mini purse seine, and longline. First- and second-best policy measures are discussed to reduce the excess capacity and give sustainable management and development.
In the developing world, more than one billion poor people obtain most of their animal protein from fish and 250 million depend on fishing and aquaculture for their livelihoods. However, with wild fish stocks under increasing stress from climate change, pollution, overfishing and other factors, effectively managing the sustainability of the oceans has never been more important.