This 2004 assessment of coral reefs in Southeast Asia (SEA) continues to show an overall decline in reef condition, but it does offer a glimmer of hope for the future. While the decline is regional, it is not re ected in the reef status in all countries. For example, Indonesia continues to show slight, but de nite improvements in reef condition from 1999, while preliminary data from Myanmar show that the reefs surveyed are relatively healthy, with most of the reefs surveyed having more than 75% live coral cover.
Myanmar’s offshore fish stocks have been depleted by up to 80% since 1979, exposing Myanmar’s people to significant economic, food security, nutrition and environmental risks. This ecosystem decline has been driven by out-dated and weak laws and policies and by inadequate management and institutional capacity. Investment in protecting and restoring fish stocks, ecosystems and habitats is required.
The growth of aquaculture - now the fastest growing food production system in the world - is increasingly attracting private investment. Much of this investment, however, is in larger enterprises and input services such as feed, seed and processing. Little is targeted at smallholder farmers who, as a result, continue to face constraints in accessing finance, technology and markets. In 2010, WorldFish set out to explore the business case for investment in smallholder aquaculture by examining several donor funded projects.
The Program will achieve impact at multiple scales (household, community, province and national as well as amongst program countries) through pathways that include partnerships, knowledge sharing and learning. In Solomon Islands significant benefits will be achieved through direct engagement with partners, including communities in specific research sites in selected program hubs. Of a total population of just over half a million people, 75% of Solomon Islanders are subsistence-oriented small holder farmers and fishers.
Myanmar’s inshore fisheries support the livelihoods of millions of Myanmar citizens living in coastal areas. However, in recent years, the capacity of these fisheries to support viable livelihoods and contribute significantly to local economies has come under threat. This policy brief sets out five priority areas that need immediate attention if coastal resources are to recover to more productive levels and if fisher communities are to continue to benefit from these resources.
The freshwater fisheries in Myanmar are economically significant and important to livelihoods and food security. Yet significant threats to the resource base and public demand call for the development of management initiatives, legal adjustments and a people-centered approach. This brief identifies a series of options and priorities that could help improving freshwater fisheries management towards a more sustainable and equitable exploitation of inland fish resources.
Rural households who fail to gain a voice in decisions over the management of shared forests, pasturelands, wetlands and fisheries face heightened risks to their livelihoods, particularly as competition increases between existing and new user groups. Exclusion from decision-making increases vulnerability of rural households, making it more difficult for them to move out of poverty and thwarting broader efforts to achieve sustainable resource management. Poor rural women in particular often face institutionalized barriers to effective participation in resource management.
Fish is an extremely important component of the Myanmar diet, and demand is growing quickly as the country urbanizes and incomes rise. Aquaculture is ideally placed to meet this demand, while also raising farm incomes and creating employment. This brief identifies three sets of policy options that could help to unlock the full potential of aquaculture’s contributions to rural growth and national food supply.
Effective partnership is central to the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agriculture Systems (AAS). We recognize that many organizations are working to improve the lives of people living in aquatic agricultural systems, and together they spend hundreds of millions of dollars there each year.
A three-year project was funded by the BMZ/GIZ to examine the benefits of integrating aquaculture and small scale irrigation by identifying improved water allocation and management strategies under current and future climate change scenarios. An integrated modeling approach was adopted to analyze the complex issues involved in the decision processes. A water budgeting approach was used in estimating and balancing the water resources available to farming communities (the supply aspect) and the water demand for agricultural use, including crops and fish farming, within a catchment.