This consultation is a contribution to an assessment of the impacts of basin development on fish production in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB). Fish of different species respond to development activities, in particular hydropower development, in different ways depending upon their migratory behaviour and their ability to adapt to and tolerate new environmental conditions.
Adaptive governance can be conceptualized as distinct phases of: 1) understanding environmental change; 2) using this understanding to inform decision making; and 3) acting on decisions in a manner that sustains resilience of desirable system states. Using this analytical framework, we explore governance in practice in two case studies in Kenya, that reflect the “messiness” of contemporary coastal governance in many developing country contexts. Findings suggest that adaptive marine governance is unlikely to be a smooth process of learning, knowledge sharing, and responding.
Commonly adopted approaches to managing small-scale fisheries (SSFs) in developing countries do not ensure sustainability. Progress is impeded by a gap between innovative SSF research and slower-moving SSF management. The paper aims to bridge the gap by showing that the three primary bases of SSF management--ecosystem, stakeholders’ rights and resilience--are mutually consistent and complementary. It nominates the ecosystem approach as an appropriate starting point because it is established in national and international law and policy.
The project "Improving resilience and adaptive capacity of fisheries-dependent communities in Solomon Islands" uses participatory diagnosis to identify threats to rural coastal communities in Solomon Islands and sources of resilience. The WorldFish Center, which leads the project, defines a resilient small-scale fishery as one that absorbs stress and reorganizes itself following disturbance, while still providing benefits for poverty reduction.
Successful management of socio-ecological systems not only requires the development and field-testing of robust and measurable indices of vulnerability and resilience but also improved understanding of the contextual factors that influence societal capacity to adapt to change. We present the results of an analysis conducted in three coastal communities in Solomon Islands.
Peru experiences recurrent ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) events during which the Peruvian bay scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) undergoes substantial changes in its stock size. In the North of the country strong warm ENSO events are synonymous with floods and river discharges that negatively affect scallop biomass, while in the South increased sea surface temperatures lead to an increase in stock size.
A critical first step in understanding vulnerability in inland fishing communities is to move away from classical fishery definitions that consider only the resource and harvest methods and, instead, recognize that fisheries operate across broad domains including the natural resource and its ecosystem, people and livelihoods, institutions and governance systems, and external drivers.
Small inland fisheries are important to the livelihoods of the poor in Africa, contributing both food security and income to millions of households living near freshwater lakes, reservoirs, rivers and floodplains. These inland fisheries have complex exploitation systems with large numbers of fishers operating in the informal sector. These systems are highly vulnerable to external disturbance, making them extremely difficult to assess and manage.
Cambodia is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change on fisheries, which supply livelihoods for millions and up to 80% of all animal protein in the diet. Most fisheries are highly variable by nature and subject to environmental change, including climate change. Hydropower dam construction, intensified fishing pressure and macroeconomic drivers are likely to affect Cambodian fisheries more immediately and visibly than climate change.
This paper reviews the management challenges facing Malawi lakes and analyzes the management responses that have been developed to deal with these challenges. Malawi lakes are under considerable stress due to high population growth and increasing levels of poverty which have led to overexploitation of fishery resources. High rates of soil erosion in the lake catchments are increasing siltation of shallow lakes, deltas and embayments, affecting water quality and fish breeding habitats, thereby degrading fish production potential.