This chapter examines the multiple dimensions of poverty and related 'state of being' such as vulnerability and social exclusion, with reference to several important aspects of vulnerability, including gender, climate change, HIV/AIDS and child labour.
Most research on gender difference or inequities in capture fisheries and aquaculture in Africa and the Asia-Pacific focuses on the gender division of labour. Emerging research on globalization, market changes, poverty and trends in gendered employment within this sector reveals the need to move beyond this narrow perspective. If gleaning and post-harvesting activities were enumerated, the fisheries and aquaculture sector might well turn out to be female sphere.
Women’s involvement in fisheries is more significant than often assumed. According to current estimates from nine major fish producing countries, they comprise 46% of the labor force in smallscale capture fisheries-related activities, including pre- and post-harvesting work. Their current engagement is shaped by rapidly dwindling fisheries stocks on one hand, and the increased global demand for fish on the other. At the WorldFish Center, research on gender and fisheries currently focuses on: 1. Markets, trade and migration 2. Capabilities and well-being 3. Identities and networks 4.
Aquaculture (18%) and aquarium (77%) species comprise most of the species which are brought into the Philippines, and although meant to be confined to culture and aquarium facilities, some have escaped to natural waters, established themselves and have become invasive - with adverse impacts to indigenous species and/or the ecosystems. Of the 159 fish species introduced to the Philippines, only 39 have been reported as established in the wild, four have not established and the remaining 116 have unknown status of establishment.
Some of the most important inland fisheries in the World are found in semi-arid regions. Production systems and livelihoods in arid and semi-arid areas are at risk from future climate variability and change; their fisheries are no exception. This paper reviews the importance of fisheries to livelihoods in ‘wetlands in drylands’, with a focus on case-studies in Africa. We examine the threats posed by climate change to the traditional ‘tri-economy’ of fishing, farming and livestock herding.
This paper examines lessons from past approaches to natural disasters, as well as early lessons from the post-2004 Asian tsunami rehabilitation, to draw out general principles for rehabilitating livelihoods in poor coastal communities.
Small-scale fisheries (SSF) make important but undervalued contributions to the economies of some of the world’s poorest countries. They also provide much of the animal protein needed by societies in which food security remains a pressing issue. Assessment and management of these fisheries is usually inadequate or absent and they continue to fall short of their potential as engines for development and social change. In this study, we bring together existing theory and methods to suggest a general scheme for diagnosing and managing SSF.
Ponds are traditional multipurpose resources accessed by households and communities, and are increasingly beingprioritised for aquaculture. High consumption of aquatic animals and declines in natural stocks has stimulated fish culture based on both stocked and natural seed across a broad spectrum of intensification. Management of a high proportion of ponds remains sub~optimal with respect to fish production because of conflicting uses, multiple ownership, and poor access to markets and information.
Rural households who fail to gain a voice in decisions over the management of shared forests, pasturelands, wetlands and fisheries face heightened risks to their livelihoods, particularly as competition increases between existing and new user groups. Exclusion from decision-making increases vulnerability of rural households, making it more difficult for them to move out of poverty and thwarting broader efforts to achieve sustainable resource management. Poor rural women in particular often face institutionalized barriers to effective participation in resource management.
Innovative combinations of social and ecological theory are required to deal with complexity and change in human-ecological systems. We examined the interplay and complementarities that emerge by linking resilience and social well-being approaches. First, we reflected on the limitations of applying ecological resilience concepts to social systems from the perspective of social theory, and particularly, the concept of well-being.