Domsea Pesquera Chile, Ltda., operated by Fundacion Chile of Santiago, picked the island of Chiloe for their first effort to introduce Pacific salmon in the southern hemisphere. Chloe, at 42°S, is somewhat more northerly than we would have wished, and we were uncertain about the effects of ocean-current patterns offshore. However, Chloe is accessible by road and close to commercial ship and air services. Locations farther south involve significantly more transportation and logistical problems.
In 1969 and 1970, Japanese experts commissioned by the Japan Fisheries Association and biologists of the Chilean Division Pesca y Caza undertook ecological and physiochemical surveys of the water resources in Chile which offered potential for salmon acclimation and culture. After an examination of many regions, efforts were concentrated in the central province of Aysen which had considerable logistic and technical advantages in addition to a suitable environment.
In 1976, ICLARM, in cooperation with the Oceanic Institute (Hawaii) and with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Tinker Foundation, developed a proposal based on a hypo-thesis by Dr. Timothy Joyner made in 1975 that salmon, properly introduced into the waters of the Southern Ocean, could provide a useful focus for a new approach to a rational, international system of fishery management. This article gives an overview of the project and its implication for the Chilean salmon ranching scenario.
We compared the effects of water resource development on migratory fish in two North American rivers using a descriptive approach based on four highlevel indicators: (1) trends in abundance of Pacific salmon, (2) reliance on artificial production to maintain fisheries, (3) proportion of adult salmon that are wild- versus hatchery-origin, and (4) number of salmon populations needing federal protection to avoid extinction.
Rainbow trout is one of the important exotic species that is well established in the upland waters of India. This paper presents the historical background of its introduction and the present status of the fish in the streams of he Nilgiri peninsula of India. The rainbow trout inhabits natural reservoirs and streams of the region as a self-recruiting population. The growth rate is reported to be relatively low and conflicting views about its taxonomic status have been reported.
An early establishment of selective breeding programs on Atlantic salmon has been crucial for the success of developing efficient and sustainable salmon farming in Norway. A national selective breeding program was initiated by AKVAFORSK at the beginning of the 1970s, by collecting fertilized eggs from more than 40 Norwegian river populations. Several private selective breeding programs were also initiated in the 1970s and 1980s. While these private programs were initiated using individual selection (i.e.
The Southern Ocean Salmon project under study by ICLARM and under consideration by Chile has a major element a solmon hatchery tentatively located on the Salto Chico in southern Chile. This discussion, in the form of a progress paper, describe the physical concept on which this hatchery is based and develops a preliminary economic analysis for its operation. This analysis is , of course, very preliminary in nature although much of the cost information is taken frmo recent detailed studies of salmon enhancement in Washington State and Alaska.
Naylor et al discuss the environmental impact of aquaculture production on salmon and shrimp.
The project is intended to assist the Chilean Government to strengthen its activities in fisheries development, particularly in the southern area of the country which is in need of improved economies.
A commercial breeding nucleus of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was established in Chile in 1997. This nucleus consists of two independent populations corresponding to different year-classes (even and odd, depending on the spawning year), which have been successfully selected for harvest weight (approximate genetic gain per generation of 10%). In order to constrain the buildup of inbreeding a strategy based on avoiding full-sib mating in each generation was used.