The seed of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra jaeger is being produced at the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute in India. This article describes the techniques being used in the production of seed and the experiments being carried out for the rearing of juveniles. Trials to grow juveniles in hatcheries on prawn farms have shown spectabular results that are both cost efficient and environmentally friendly.
Converting the weights or lengths of sea cucumbers in processed forms (e.g., salted or dried) to their original (live) measurement is essential for standardising data from fishery-dependent surveys and exports. We estimated the proportionate change in length and weight, during processing stages, of several species for which published data were lacking. The wide variation among species in the percentage of weight lost during processing emphasises that conversions should be made on a species-by-species basis.
Severe overfishing of sea cucumbers has occurred in most countries of the tropical Indo-Pacific. The release of juveniles is being examined at the ICLARM Coastal Aquaculture Centre in the Solomon islands as a means of restoring and enhancing tropical sea cucumber stocks. Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) are the tropical species that show the best potential for stock enhancement. Sandfish are of high value, widely distributed and relatively easy to culture in simple systemss at a low cost. This paper summarizes information about the culture of H.
A brochure to describe the research works in the Pacific region by the WorldFish center
The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (sandfish) has been commercially exploited over a wide tropical and subtropical range for centuries. It can produce a high-value grade of beche-demer if processing is carried out well. In many cases sandfish have made up the most valuable fraction of the total sea cucumber trade from particular producing countries, both in terms of price per kilogram and of total value.
A joint WorldFish - Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) project to restore to productive levels the breeding populations of sea cucumber, using the sandfish (Holothuria scabra) as the focal species, is in its final stage. Theproject's main aim is to develop optimal methods of releasing hatchery-produced sandfish into the wild; how, when, where, at what size, and in what density.
The co-culture of juvenile sea cucumber Holothuria scabra (Jaeger), or ‘sandfish’, with juvenile blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Stimpson) was tested by growing groups in co-culture and monoculture for 3 weeks in tanks with enriched sand substratum. Feedwas supplied on trays, accessible only to shrimp. Survival of shrimp and sandfish was high in all treatments (73-100%).
Hatchery-produced juveniles need to be distinguished from wild conspecifics in order to evaluate the success of restocking experiments and stock enhancement. The commercially valuable sea cucumber Holothuria scabra, or ‘sandfish’, has potential for stock enhancement but cheap, long-lasting tags have not yet been developed. We evaluated five non-genetic tags against several criteria: cost, ease of application, retention rate, and ease of detection. In a 1-month trial, T-bar tags and visible elastomer implants proved unsuitable on hatchery-produced sandfish juveniles.
The study of species boundaries in areas of sympatry provides important insight into speciation processes. We investigated whether (i) two sympatric holothurians, Holothuria scabra and H. s. var. versicolor constituted species, and (ii) specimens of intermediate phenotype hybrids. Results from allozyme and 16S mtDNA sequence analyses indicated these two sea cucumbers to be distinct but young biological and phylogenetic species.
With limited success of western models to manage fisheries resources, Customary Marine Tenure (CMT) could be a more effective vehicle for forming and imposing sustainable management of sea cucumber resources in Solomon Islands. Analysis of national export data from 1991 to 2001 shows a decreased landing of sea cucumbers from a record level of 622 tonnes (dried) in 1991 to 240 tonnes (dried) in 2001, with > 75 % of the 2001 landings derived from species of medium- and low-commercial value.