Almost a half million fishers in Bangladesh are predominantly reliant on the hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha) fishery in the Meghna River and estuarine ecosystem. This paper adopts a broadened concept of social-ecological traps to frame the complex dynamics that emerge from social and ecological interactions in this highly natural resource-dependent social-ecological system (SES). We analyze how endogenous self-reinforcing processes in the system and poor initial conditions, particularly debt and lack of livelihood options outside fisheries, keep fishing households in poverty.
The present study aimed to map the presence of cages and to profile the socio-economic characteristics of their owners in Lake Victoria Basin Kenya as baseline information to aid in the formation of policies to manage the integration of capture and culture fisheries.
The Ayeyarwady State of the Basin Assessment (SOBA) is one of the major knowledge outputs of the Ayeyarwady Integrated River Basin Management (AIRBM) Project prepared by Hydro-Informatics Centre (HIC). SOBA aims to inform planning in the Ayeyarwady Basin by providing baseline information on the condition and trends in water and land resources as well as related ecosystem services and the livelihoods and economies of Myanmar that depend on these resources.
This report details livelihood adaptations among Cambodia’s fisherfolks: the different kinds of response to change, who is successful, the success factors and the obstacles faced.
The Java Sea is a major fishing ground in Indonesia contributing 31% of the national marine fisheries production. Demersal and small pelagic fishery resources account for most production in the area. During the 1960s and 1970s, strong demand for fish, which in Indonesia resulted from both increased human population and increased per capita fish consumption, stimulated the development of fishing in the Java Sea. This led to development of up-stream and down-stream industries, increases in employment opportunities, and increases in the number of fishers and fishing households.
Thailand is currently one of the ten largest fishing nations in the world. In 1996, fish production reached 3.7 million t with 90% of the production coming from the marine fisheries sector and 10% from inland fisheries. Thai fishing operates in four fishing grounds namely, the Gulf of Thailand, the Andaman Sea, the South China Sea and the Bay of Bengal. However with the establishment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1977, Thailand lost over 300 000 km2 of traditional fishing grounds.
Change has become a pervasive global force with implications for the sustainability of social–ecological systems. In this context, understanding how much disturbance systems can absorb, where critical thresholds lie, and what systems might look like if a threshold is crossed are critical research questions. This paper explores resilience and social thresholds in two coastal communities in Mozambique by having fishers define their system identity, identify potential system thresholds, and explain how they would respond to crossing a threshold.
The marine fisheries sector in Malaysia contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of income, foreign exchange and employment. In 1999, marine fisheries contributed 1.245 million t (90% of total fish production) valued at US$1.18 billion. The total value accounted for about 1.53% of national GDP and 11.31% of agricultural GDP. The export of fish and fishery products amounted to about US$210 million. The sector provided employment to about 80 000 fishers. Fisheries management is currently guided by the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3 1998 - 2010).
It is widely recognised that anchored, nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs) are one of the few practical ‘vehicles’ for increasing access to tuna to help feed the rapidly growing rural and urban populations in many Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs). However, considerable planning, monitoring and research is still needed to understand and fulfil the potential of nearshore FADs.
There is a growing recognition that the fisheries policies of the past have been driven primarily by environmental and economic research agendas. This may have been due to the influence of the more powerful actors in the fisheries policy debate: foreign governments, conservation organizations, the scientific establishment, development bodies, and finance institutions. The actors without a voice at the table have been the millions of small-scale fishers, less educated, less organized, and with little economic or political weight.