The marine fisheries sector in Malaysia contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of income, foreign exchange and employment. In 1999, marine fisheries contributed 1.245 million t (90% of total fish production) valued at US$1.18 billion. The total value accounted for about 1.53% of national GDP and 11.31% of agricultural GDP. The export of fish and fishery products amounted to about US$210 million. The sector provided employment to about 80 000 fishers. Fisheries management is currently guided by the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3 1998 - 2010).
It is widely recognised that anchored, nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs) are one of the few practical ‘vehicles’ for increasing access to tuna to help feed the rapidly growing rural and urban populations in many Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs). However, considerable planning, monitoring and research is still needed to understand and fulfil the potential of nearshore FADs.
There is a growing recognition that the fisheries policies of the past have been driven primarily by environmental and economic research agendas. This may have been due to the influence of the more powerful actors in the fisheries policy debate: foreign governments, conservation organizations, the scientific establishment, development bodies, and finance institutions. The actors without a voice at the table have been the millions of small-scale fishers, less educated, less organized, and with little economic or political weight.
Since March 1987, there has been an experimental fish farmers cooperative near Bangui, in the Central African Republic. Its objective is to increase the productivity of existing ponds: currently 2-3 mt/ha/year. Previous attempts to expand aquaculture (mainly pond culture of tilapia) in the country have had limited success, principally because the use of small ponds meant that individual farmers could not buy fertilizers and fish food in big quantities and therefore at lower prices. Moreover, the costs of guarding each pond were too high.
Small scale rural producers in the Third world are unable as individuals to influence the direction of development. Organizations to represent their interests have failed in this taks for a number of reasons, not least of which is the inability to attract and maintain a participatory membership. It is argued here that organizing small-scale rural producers around a key issue will provide the rationale necessary for active participation. Local control over natural resources exploited by communities of small scale rural producers is suggested as such a theme.
The Community-based Coastal Resource Management Project in Orion, Bataan, Philippines was started in 1991. The village level fishers organizations have formed a municipal-wide association called the Samahan at Ugnayan ng Pangisdaan sa Orion (SUGPO). It represents 70% of the small-scale fishers in Orion and has taken on the task of rehabilitating the degraded fishing grounds.
The lack of comprehensive regional treatments of small scale fisheries and the need for improved information for management purposes of this sector in the region are emphasized. Estimating total catches, mapping the seasonal deployment of fleets and quantifying their fishing effort as well as computing catch per unit effort and cost per unit catch for all major gears/species are crucial. In addition, the need to understand oftenly neglected issues, such as the mobility of fisherfolk in and out of the fishery and the role of women in production, distribution and trade are emphasized.
An investigation of fishermen’s knowledge of fish occurrence patterns on various spatio-temporal scales has been realized in the Fatala Estuary (Guinea, West Africa), accompanied by a one-year survey with standardized gill-net sets. Seventy one fishermen distributed in four zones corresponding to gill-net sampling sites were questioned about seasonal variations of species’ relative abundances. Longitudinal and seasonal patterns of fish relative abundances were described with correspondence analysis and ANOVA for both approaches.
Although fair distribution of incomes within marketing channels and systems receives increasing attention in companies' corporate social responsibility policies, the marketing literature offers few insights that may be helpful to initiate projects that improve incomes of primary producers in mainstream marketing channels. This article deals with the question of how projects that aim at increasing primary producers' incomes can be initiated in mainstream marketing channels: Who is the channel member that is best suited to take initiative, and why should it be this partner?
Despite increased evidence of overfishing of coastal and inland resources in the Indo-Pacific region, government fisheries development programmes, for the most part, retain their 'production' orientation. Using the familiar static economic model of the fishery and assuming the resource is both biologically and economically overfished, the author examines the likely impact on sustainable yields and fishing incomes of various development programmes.