Water productivity (WP) metrics have proven useful in comparing production efficiency of various crops. Recently, it has also been proposed to facilitate more equitable allocation of scarce freshwater resources between irrigated agriculture and fisheries.
This study presents a comprehensive site-scale analysis conducted within the global wetland inventory and mapping (GWIM) project. GWIM was developed and promoted by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) through global partnerships to investigate wetland analyses at multiple scales. The present study investigates the complexity of an inland freshwater wetland system, presenting a conceptual framework for mapping and monitoring the dynamics of Lake Kolleru (a wetland of international importance, as defined by the Ramsar Convention), utilizing a geospatial platform.
Fishery has long been part of the staple diet of the people in Cambodia. As Cambodia moves to wards a free market economy, the commercial pressure on natural resources has dramatically increased. Privatization of the remaining fishery resources has had a great impact on local livelihoods, leading to an alarming increase in conflict over fisheries. In order to protect people livelihood and natural resources, NGOs, has advocated that government institutions apply more effort to solving fishery problems.
Historically, land and water management within many coastal deltas has focused on the exclusion of saline water flows that move upstream from the coast. However, this approach fails to recognize the diversity of rural livelihoods and ecosystems in coastal deltaic areas, the environmental consequences of altering natural saline water flows and the emergence of new activities such as shrimp farming that require brackish water.
Water quality variables were monitored during 3.5 years of research on pig-fish, duck-fish and chicken-fish systems. Early morning dissolved oxygen levels were often below 0.5 mg/1. Total ammonia levels were highest in chicken-fish systems with maximum levels exceeding 6 mg1. Water quality sampling designs which measure the fluctuations in water quality variables are discussed. Species selection, control of manure loads, addition of new water, and aeration are presented as means to manage water quality in livestock-fish systems.
In October 2005, a consortium of partners led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) proposed a project aimed at integrating fish resources management in agricultural management in the Tonle Sap area. This 2-years project assistance was accepted for funding by the Challenge Program on Water and Food and started in January 2008. The overall goal of this project is to improve allocation and use of water in combined farming and fishing systems in order to enhance food security of rural communities and water productivity.
The BayFish-Bac Lieu model presented in this chapter is a Bayesian model that aims to identify optimal water control regimes and trade-offs between water uses in order to improve management of water-dependent resources in the inland coastal area of Bac Lieu Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The model was developed between 2004 and 2007 and integrated local databases, outputs from the Vietnam River Systems and Plains (VRSAP) model and stakeholder consultations.
Details are given of a standard format used by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program of the US Agency for International Development for the communication of experimental ideas. An example is given of the "Preliminary Proposal Format," which contains a list of information categories or headings as follows: Title; Objectives: Significance; Experimental design; Pond facilities; Stocking rate; Other inputs; Sampling plan; Hypotheses; Statistical methods; Duration; Water management; and Schedule.
Global fishmeal production from wild-catch sources cannot continue to increase indefinitely; suitable alternatives have to be found for sustainable aquaculture. Plant-based aquafeed seems to be the ideal alternative to this, but has its own limitations. Plant ingredients are rich in phytic acid, which reduces the bioavailability of nutrients like minerals and protein to the fish, thereby causing aquaculture pollution. Dietary phytase treatment reduces the aquaculture pollution by improving the bioavailability of nutrients, and reduces the feed cost as evident from poultry and piggery.
We present a critical analysis of the application of the water productivity concept in fisheries and aquaculture, defining the scope of application of the concept and limitations. A revised framework is presented and potential issues raised, highlighting areas for further research. A pluralistic approach including socialecological assessments and the explicit consideration of trade-offs between the objectives of increased food production, ecosystem conservation and poverty alleviation is proposed.